Table 1—

Baseline demographics

CharacteristicTotaliTCCTCCP
n412120
Lost to follow-up7 (17)4 (19)3 (15)0.63
Age (years)50.9 (23–65)50.7 (29–65)51 (23–65)0.9
Male28 (68)15 (71)14 (65)0.67
White5 (12)3 (14)2 (10)0.68
Black14 (35)6 (29)8 (40)0.45
Hispanic25 (61)13 (62)12 (60)0.9
Type 2 diabetes38 (92.5)20 (95.2)18 (90)0.53
Duration of diabetes (years)14.1 (2–33)14 (5–33)14.3 (2–27)0.9
Current smoker5 (12)3 (14)2 (10)0.68
Ever smoked18 (44)11 (52)7 (35)0.51
Insulin requiring19 (46)8 (38)11 (55)0.29
NDS*9.2 (6–10)9.2 (7–10)9.2 (6–10)0.85
Vibration perception threshold (volts)46 (44–48)47 (44–51)45 (41–48)0.27
Ulcer surface area (cm2)3 (1.6, 0.9–3.7)3.1 (1.6, 0.9–3.5)2.9 (1.9, 0.9–3.9)0.99
Ulcer duration (days)216 (68, 14–255)228 (55, 14–260)202 (76, 19–263)0.64
Ulcer distribution
    Forefoot29 (71)14 (65)15 (76)0.44
    Midfoot11 (27)6 (30)5 (24)0.66
    Heel1 (2)1 (5)0 (0)0.3
  • Data are n (%), means (range), means (95% CI), or mean (median, 1st and 3rd quartile).

  • *

    * NDS, Neuropathy Disability Score, a quantitative measure of neuropathy: patients receive 1 point each per foot for deficits in pin-prick sensation, temperature sensation, and vibratory sensation, and 1–2 points per foot for deficits in Achilles tendon reflexes, for a score from 0 to 10 with higher numbers reflecting more severe neuropathy (1).

  • Not normally distributed; most accurate measure of central tendency is the median.