Table 1—

Population characteristics according to type of maternal diabetes

Type 1 diabetesGDMP*
n15290
Maternal parameters
    Maternal age (years)25 ± 0.4028 ± 0.54<0.001
    Maternal BMI (kg/m2)25 ± 0.2324 ± 0.150.01
    Pregestational duration of diabetes (years)8.4 ± 0.50Notapplicable
    Gestational age (weeks)39 ± 0.1039 ± 0.150.14
    Parity (1/2/≥3; n)98/37/1734/33/23<0.001
    Maternal socioeconomic/educational status (man/non-man/grad; n)29/103/2021/57/120.72
    Mean maternal blood glucose (third trimester) (mmol/l)5.1 ± 0.015.3 ± 0.010.35
Neonatal parameters
    Sex (male/female)77/7553/370.22
    Birth weight (g)3,449 ± 493,481 ± 560.68
    Total milk intake (g/day)158 ± 4.9148 ± 5.50.18
    DBM intake (g/day)83 ± 5.8100 ± 7.10.06
    Neonatal hypoglycemia4.6% (7)6.7% (6)0.56
    5-min Apgar score <73.9% (6)4.4% (4)0.85
    Any Apgar score <715% (23)20% (18)0.33
    Age of achieving developmental milestones
    “Lifting head while prone” (weeks)7.0 (1.0–28.0)10.0 (3.0–24.0)0.61
    “Following with eyes” (weeks)9.0 (3.0–24.0)8.0 (3.0–20.0)0.61
    “Walking without help” (weeks)52.0 (36.0–72.0)52.0 (44.0–72.0)0.29
    “Speaking first words” (weeks)48.0 (31.0–100.0)48.0 (24.0–96.0)0.57
  • Data are means ± SE, median (range), or % (n), as appropriate.

  • *

    * By unpaired Student’s t test, Mann-Whitney U test, or χ2 test, as appropriate. Man, manual worker; non-man, nonmanual worker; grad, graduation/degree.