Table 2—

Population characteristics according to tertiles of mean daily consumption of DBM during the first 7 days of life

ParametersTertiles of DBM volume (g/day)
P*
First (≤47)Second (48–119)Third (≥120)
n818081
Maternal BMI (kg/m2)25 ± 0.3125 ± 0.3025 ± 0.200.39
Maternal age (years)27 ± 0.7126 ± 0.4725 ± 0.500.01
Type of maternal diabetes (% GDM)25 (20)42 (34)44 (36)0.009
Pregestational duration of diabetes (type 1) (years)7.5 ± 0.759.9 ± 0.957.9 ± 0.870.13
Parity (1/2/≥3; n)44/18/1945/28/743/24/140.68
Parental socioeconomic/educational status (man/non-man/grad; n)16/55/1015/57/819/48/140.89
Mean maternal blood glucose (third trimester) (mmol/l)5.2 ± 0.135.2 ± 0.145.2 ± 0.130.99
Gestational age (weeks)38 ± 0.1639 ± 0.1439 ± 0.120.01
Sex (male/female)44/3740/4046/350.75
Birth weight (g)3,487 ± 713,378 ± 623,519 ± 590.27
Total milk intake (g/day)151 ± 64129 ± 43182 ± 50<0.001
Neonatal hypoglycemia9.9 (8)3.7 (3)2.5 (2)0.04
5-min Apgar score <76.2 (5)5 (4)1.2 (1)0.12
Any Apgar score <736 (29)25 (20)14 (11)0.001
  • Data are n, means ± SE, or % (n).

  • *

    * By ANOVA or χ2 test for trend. Man, manual worker; non-man, nonmanual worker; grad, graduation/degree.