Table 1—

Characteristics of the whole population

Specialist care patientsPrimary care patientsP value
n5911,911
Male52.6%48.3%0.07
Age (years)73.1 ± 5.674.3 ± 6.2<0.0001
Diabetes duration >5 years75.3%69.7%0.009
A1c (%)9.3 ± 1.39.1 ± 1.30.001
Rural residence5.4%18.0%<0.0001
Long-term care resident1.0%3.7%0.001
Low income (see text for definitions)24.0%35.2%<0.0001
Any hospitalization in previous year14.0%10.7%0.02
Hypo- or hyperglycemia hospitalization in previous year0.2%0.1%0.7
Retinal photocoagulation in previous year4.9%2.5%0.002
Cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization in previous year4.9%4.2%0.5
Cardiovascular procedure in previous year1.0%1.0%1.0
Use of nitrates in previous year23.5%17.9%0.002
Use of oral corticosteroid in previous year5.8%4.0%0.08
Use of thyroid drugs in previous year13.5%13.7%0.9
Number of drugs prescribed in previous year10.8 ± 6.19.9 ± 5.90.002
Number of capillary test strips received in previous year216 ± 270126 ± 198<0.0001
Number of emergency department visits in previous year0.6 ± 1.30.4 ± 1.00.0009
Number of visits to any physician in previous year15.9 ± 10.113.2 ± 9.8<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.