Table 2—

Characteristics of matched cohorts

Specialist care patientsPrimary care patientsP value
Age (years)73.1 ± 5.673.1 ± 5.80.9
Diabetes duration >5 years75.2%76.4%0.6
A1c (%)9.3 ± 1.39.3 ± 1.40.5
Rural residence5.5%5.6%0.9
Long-term care resident1.0%1.2%0.7
Low income (see text for definitions)23.6%24.8%0.6
Any hospitalization in previous year13.8%15.4%0.5
Hypo- or hyperglycemia hospitalization in previous year0.2%0%1.0
Retinal photocoagulation in previous year4.6%4.4%0.9
Cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization in previous year5.0%6.0%0.4
Cardiovascular procedure in previous year1.0%1.7%0.3
Use of nitrates in previous year23.4%24.3%0.7
Use of oral corticosteroid in previous year5.8%6.0%0.9
Use of thyroid drugs in previous year13.5%14.0%0.8
Number of drugs prescribed in previous year10.8 ± 6.111.1 ± 6.50.3
Number of capillary test strips received in previous year209 ± 253210 ± 2610.9
Number of emergency department visits in previous year0.6 ± 1.30.7 ± 1.30.6
Number of visits to any physician in previous year15.7 ± 9.715.8 ± 11.20.9
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.