Table 3—

Crude and multiple-adjusted RR of incident diabetes by tertiles of endothelial-dependent FMD of the brachial artery

3rd tertile (referent)2nd tertile1st tertile
Levels of FMD (%)≥5.64.4–5.5≤4.3
Median FMD (%)
Incident diabetes (no. of cases)93558
Incidence rate (no. of cases per 1,000 person-years)2.07.914.4
Crude RR (95% CI)1.003.95 (2.85–8.21)7.20 (5.88–12.6)*
Mutiple-adjusted RR (95% CI)1.002.85 (2.14–5.10)5.40 (3.35–7.99)*
  • *

    * P < 0.0001.

  • Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for age (continuous); family history of diabetes (yes/no); level of plasma glucose (continuous); BMI (continuous); waist circumference (continuous); duration of postmenopausal period (continuous); alcohol consumption (never, 1–5 drinks/month, 2–6 drinks/week, ≥1 drink/day); physical activity (never, 1–2 times/week, ≥3 times/week); baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (continuous); BMI (continuous); waist circumference (continuous); and fasting plasma levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides (continuous) and their changes from baseline to the last follow-up visit (continuous).