Table 1—

Characteristics of the included studies

ReferenceStudy name, countryPopulationAge range at baseline (years)SexNo. at risk with follow-upNo. of incident cases of diabetesFollow-up (years)Diabetes definitionConfounders adjusted for
Lee et al. (34)Iowa Women’s Health Study, U.S.Population based55–69Women35,6981,9219.3Baseline and four follow-up self reportsNone
Sawada et al. (33)Tokyo Gas Company Study, JapanEmployees of one company20–40Men4,74528013.6Annual testing1–6
Carlsson et al. (32)Finnish Twin Cohort, FinlandPopulation based≥18Men and women10,856 and 11,664277 and 29720.0Record linkage with national hospital and drug registers1 and 3
Lee et al. (27)GGT-study, KoreaEmployees of one company25–55Men4,055834.0Annual testingNone
Nakanishi, Suzuki, and Tatara (28)Building Company Study, JapanOffice workers of one company35–59Men2,9533707.0Annual testing*1–4 and 7
Wannamethee et al. (8)Nurses’ Health Study 2, U.S.Nurses25–42Women109,70593510.0Biennial self-report1–4 and 7–11
de Vegt et al. (25)Hoorn Study, the NetherlandsPopulation based50–75Men and women1,3221317.6Baseline and follow-up testing1 and 12
Meisinger et al. (28)MONICA, GermanyPopulation based35–74Men and women3,052 and 3,114128 and 857.6Baseline and follow-up self-report1, 4, and 13
Wannamethee et al. (31)British Regional Heart Study, U.K.General practitioners’ register40–59Men5,22119816.8Baseline and follow-up self-report1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 15
Conigrave et al. (24)Health Professionals Follow-up Study, U.S.Health professionals40–75Men46,8921,57112.0Biennial self-report1–4, 7, 9, 10, and 15–22
Hu et al. (26)Nurses’ Health Study, U.S.Nurses30–55Women82,3933,29616.0Biennial self-report1, 3, and 23–25
Kao et al. (7)ARIC Study, U.S.Population based45–64Men and women5,423 and 6,838547 and 5696.0Baseline and follow-up testing1–4, 7, 9, 20, and 26–28
Ajani et al. (22)Physicians’ Health Study, U.S.Physicians40–85Men20,95166612.1Baseline and follow-up self-report1–3, 7, 9, and 10
Wei et al. (23)Cooper Clinic Study, U.S.Population based30–79Men8,6331496.0Baseline and follow-up testing1, 3, and 29
Tsumura et al. (30)Osaka Health Survey, JapanEmployees of one company35–61Men6,3624569.7Biennial testing1–4, 7, and 30
  • *

    * Impaired fasting glucose also included in diabetes definition. 1, age; 2, smoking; 3, family history of diabetes; 4, BMI; 5, blood pressure; 6, fitness; 7, physical activity; 8, oral contraceptive use; 9, hypertension; 10, hypercholesterolemia; 11, infertility; 12, sex; 13, survey; 14, social class; 15, preexisting coronary heart disease; 16, dietary glycemic load; 17, fiber; 18, trans fat; 19, polyunsaturated fat; 20, energy intake; 21, profession; 22, cancer; 23, time; 24, menopausal status; 25, hormone therapy; 26, waist-to-hip ratio; 27, race; 28, education; 29, years of follow-up; 30, fasting plasma glucose.