Table 2—

Baseline diabetes complications by diabetes type and all-cause mortality

Baseline complicationType 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
SurvivorsNonsurvivorsSurvivorsNonsurvivors
n1,3241201,681585
Macrovascular disease*
    Absent83.261.760.935.7
    Present16.838.339.164.3
Nephropathy
    None/mild proteinuria70.056.375.748.7
    Moderate proteinuria22.220.516.224.9
    Severe proteinuria5.08.02.65.8
Increased serum creatinine2.815.25.520.6
Peripheral neuropathy
    Normal62.437.845.930.3
    Vibratory sense diminished32.349.644.252.7
    Ulceration3.85.96.59.6
    Amputation1.56.73.57.4
Diabetic retinopathy
    None/mild NPDR12.615.020.513.7
    Moderate NPDR40.936.755.356.3
    Severe NPDR19.118.313.316.0
    Mild PDR13.612.56.46.3
    Moderate/high PDR13.817.54.67.7
Visual acuity
    ≥20/2073.650.848.834.6
    20/20–20/4024.646.739.944.2
     <20/401.72.511.421.2
  • Data are percentages.

  • *

    * Macrovascular disease indicates a baseline history of myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attacks, intermittent claudication, antianginal use, or an ECG abnormality;

  • significantly different at P ≤ 0.01; categorical variables were compared within each type of diabetes using the χ2 test.