Table 4—

Results of Cox proportional hazards models for all-cause mortality in participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in ETDRS*

ComplicationType 1 diabetes mortality
Type 2 diabetes mortality
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 1Model 2Model 3
Macrovascular disease
    Absent
    Present1.96 (1.33–2.89)1.43 (0.89–2.29)1.36 (0.83–2.21)2.00 (1.69–2.38)1.72 (1.40–2.12)1.63 (1.32–2.01)
Nephropathy
    None/mild proteinuria
    Moderate proteinuria1.25 (0.77–2.02)0.98 (0.57–1.67)1.02 (0.59–1.77)2.17 (1.77–2.67)2.02 (1.59–2.56)1.90 (1.49–2.42)
    Severe proteinuria2.23 (1.11–4.49)1.03 (0.44–2.40)0.96 (0.40–2.29)3.08 (2.13–4.45)1.90 (1.20–3.00)1.89 (1.19–3.01)
    Increased serum creatinine4.53 (2.64–7.77)1.52 (0.70–3.29)1.93 (0.89–4.18)3.96 (3.17–4.94)2.69 (2.02–3.60)2.46 (1.83–3.32)
Peripheral neuropathy
    Normal
    Vibratory sense diminished1.51 (1.00–2.28)1.39 (0.85–2.26)1.22 (0.74–1.99)1.31 (1.09–1.59)1.41 (1.11–1.78)1.32 (1.04–1.67)
    Ulceration1.61 (0.72–3.61)1.44 (0.58–3.58)1.37 (0.55–3.41)1.87 (1.38–2.52)2.05 (1.42–2.94)1.48 (1.01–2.17)
    Amputation3.98 (1.84–8.59)5.82 (2.41–14.01)5.08 (2.06–12.54)2.25 (1.60–3.15)2.69 (1.78–4.05)2.23 (1.47–3.38)
Diabetic retinopathy
    None/mild NPDR
    Moderate NPDR0.88 (0.51–1.53)0.84 (0.42–1.65)0.88 (0.43–1.80)1.37 (1.07–1.75)1.33 (0.99–1.79)1.27 (0.94–1.72)
    Severe NPDR1.51 (0.79–2.91)1.55 (0.71–3.37)1.33 (0.59–2.99)1.70 (1.26–2.30)1.77 (1.24–2.53)1.48 (1.03–2.15)
    Mild PDR1.11 (0.55–2.22)0.71 (0.30–1.71)0.54 (0.21–1.38)1.55 (1.04–2.29)1.54 (0.97–2.44)1.28 (0.80–2.06)
    Moderate/high PDR1.71 (0.89–3.27)1.35 (0.61–2.96)1.21 (0.54–2.73)2.23 (1.55–3.22)2.01 (1.28–3.14)2.02 (1.28–3.19)
Visual acuity
    ≥20/20
    20/20–20/402.25 (1.55–3.25)1.81 (1.17–2.83)1.74 (1.10–2.75)1.19 (0.99–1.44)1.34 (1.07–1.68)1.24 (0.99–1.56)
    <20/401.49 (0.47–4.77)1.13 (0.27–4.81)0.97 (0.22–4.19)1.54 (1.22–1.94)1.60 (1.21–2.12)1.36 (1.01–1.83)
  • Data are HR (95% CI).

  • *

    * Model 1 adjusts for age and sex. Model 2 adjusts for age, sex, and statistically significant (P < 0.05) baseline covariates. Model 3 adjusts for age, sex, statistically significant baseline covariates, and all other diabetes complications. Statistically significant HRs (P < 0.05) are shown in bold. Models 2 and 3 were also adjusted for the following baseline covariates in type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) diabetes: race (T1), duration of diabetes (T1), BMI (T2), HbA1c (T1, T2), systolic blood pressure (T1), total cholesterol (T1, T2), triglycerides (T2), fibrinogen (T1, T2), cigarette smoking (T1, T2), alcohol consumption (T1), diuretic use (T1, T2), daily insulin use (T2), and the use antihypertensive medication (T1, T2);

  • macrovascular disease includes a history of myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attacks, intermittent claudication, antianginal use, or ECG abnormality.