Table 1—

Baseline characteristics

NMCKPTAMCJOSTotalP
n200179167137683
Male (%)44.557.553.954.752.3
Age (years)62.059.350.950.656.3< 0.001
Ethnic background (%)*< 0.001
    Non-Hispanic white54.568.234.152.7
    African American13.09.517.413.2
    Hispanic5.011.24.87.0
    Asian/Pacific Islander22.05.631.719.6
High school graduate (%)85.688.792.288.7
Diabetes duration (years)12.515.310.512.8< 0.001
Medication use (%)< 0.05
    Insulin47.558.744.950.4
    Oral hypoglycemic agents only42.535.849.742.5
Diet controlled (%)10.05.65.47.1
HbA1c (%)8.77.610.48.28.8< 0.001
CESD15.413.914.320.215.7< 0.001
DDS (total score)31.736.139.350.638.5< 0.001
Self-care
    Meal planning67.764.436.756.9< 0.001
    Exercise2.62.83.02.8
    SMBG§70.777.769.972.7
  • *

    * Percentages do not sum to 100% because smaller ethnic groups (Hispanics and African Americans) were excluded from these analyses;

  • those following recommendations “always” or “usually” during the past 7 days;

  • number of days of exercise (20 min or more) during the past 7 days;

  • §

    § those reporting monitoring “every day” or “most days.”