Table 1—

Baseline values and changes over 12 months in PC case and control subjects

PC subjects (n = 92)
Control subjects (n = 88)
P value (baseline)P value (change)
BaselineChange over 12 monthsBaselineChange over 12 months
Age (years)70.5 ± 7.170.3 ± 8.30.86
Male (%)47.856.80.24
Diabetes duration (years)10.0 [7.6–14.0]8.0 [6.6–12.0]0.009
BMI (kg/m2)30.0 ± 4.3−0.6 (−1.0 to −0.3)30.0 ± 4.50.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)0.980.005
Any exercise (%)75.0−3.176.1−13.30.860.55
Fasting serum glucose (mmol/l)8.8 [7.4–10.5]−0.8 (−1.3 to −0.4)8.1 [6.7–9.7]0.4 (−0.1 to 1.0)0.11<0.001
HbA1c (%)7.5 [6.9–8.1]−0.5 (−0.7 to −0.3)7.1 [6.3–7.8]0 (−0.2 to 0.2)0.0460.002
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)157 ± 22−14 (−19 to −9)156 ± 25−7 (−11 to −2)0.630.024
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 10−5 (−8 to −3)77 ± 11−2 (−4 to 1)0.910.043
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.0 ± 1.1−0.3 (−0.5 to −0.2)4.9 ± 0.8−0.2 (−0.3 to 0)0.500.14
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.19 ± 0.310.03 (−0.01 to 0.07)1.19 ± 0.32−0.02 (−0.05 to 0.02)0.930.07
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.7 (0.9–3.0)−0.6 (−1.3 to 0.1)1.6 (1.0–2.5)0 (−0.1 to 0.2)0.430.09
Urinary ACR (mg/mmol)2.6 (0.6–12.6)−2.5 (−5.7 to 0.7)1.7 (0.3–8.1)1.7 (−3.3 to 6.6)0.060.15
Known CHD/stroke (%)54.3040.900.08
  • Data are means ± SD, geometric mean (SD range), median [interquartile range], or percentages. Changes over 12 months are mean difference (95% CI) or percentages. ACR, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio.