Table 1—

Clinical characteristics by level of LTPA

SedentaryModerately activeActive
Men/women131/116*246/322105/110
Age (years)38 ± 1138 ± 1237 ± 12
Duration of diabetes (years)22 ± 1222 ± 1222 ± 12
BMI (kg/m2)25.6 ± 3.525.1 ± 3.424.8 ± 3.0
Waist-to-hip ratio
    Men0.92 ± 0.070.90 ± 0.060.91 ± 0.08
    Women0.83 ± 0.070.82 ± 0.070.81 ± 0.08
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133 ± 17131 ± 16133 ± 18
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 978 ± 979 ± 10
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.94.9 ± 0.94.8 ± 1.0
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.56 ± 0.451.66 ± 0.421.69 ± 0.60
Diabetic nephropathy (%)161110
Cardiovascular disease (%)3.34.84.3
Retinopathy (%, including background)555250
Current smokers (%)
    Men331815
    Women242022
White-collar workers (%)
    Men303935
    Women324540
  • Data are means ± SD; n = 1,030.

  • *

    * P = 0.024 men vs. women;

  • P < 0.05 (ANOVA/χ2 tests);

  • P < 0.05 sedentary vs. others.