Table 1—

Physical characteristics and fasting metabolic data of the study subjects

Obese control subjectsType 2 diabetic patientsP
n2014
Age (years)14.6 ± 0.415.5 ± 0.50.12
Sex (M/F)7/134/101.00
Ethnicity (African American/white)16/410/40.69
BMI (kg/m2)37.5 ± 1.335.9 ± 1.80.47
Percent body fat43.5 ± 1.041.3 ± 1.50.21
Visceral adipose tissue (cm2)68.2 ± 6.290.6 ± 15.00.27
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (cm2)608.7 ± 35.5521.8 ± 39.20.12
HbA1c (%)5.4 ± 0.16.9 ± 0.3<0.001
Glucose (mmol/l)5.4 ± 0.17.5 ± 0.3<0.001
Insulin (pmol/l)220.2 ± 18.0289.8 ± 24.60.007
C-peptide (nmol/l)0.87 ± 0.081.43 ± 0.170.003
Proinsulin (pmol/l)36.8 ± 5.193.8 ± 13.1<0.001
Proinsulin-to-insulin ratio0.16 ± 0.020.34 ± 0.040.002
Adiponectin (μg/ml)7.5 ± 1.03.6 ± 0.30.001
Hepatic glucose production (μmol · kg–1 · min–1)12.3 ± 0.516.5 ± 1.10.002
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.07 ± 0.091.63 ± 0.240.042
VLDL (mmol/l)0.21 ± 0.020.33 ± 0.050.046
  • Data are means ± SEM. Cholesterol, LDL, and HDL values are not statistically different between the two groups (data not shown).