Table 2—

Total and cardiovascular mortality according to different levels of physical activity, BMI, blood pressure, total cholesterol level, and smoking among Finnish participants with type 2 diabetes

VariableNumbers of deaths
Person-yearsHR (95% CI)
Total mortality
Cardiovascular mortality
TotalCVDModel 1*Model 2Model 3Model 1*Model 2Model 3
n3,7083,7082,9383,7083,7082,938
Physical activity
    Low39926410,9401.001.001.001.001.001.00
    Moderate47230421,4370.59 (0.52–0.68)0.61 (0.53–0.70)0.61 (0.51–0.73)0.60 (0.51–0.71)0.61 (0.52–0.73)0.57 (0.46–0.72)
    High55233836,7810.49 (0.43–0.56)0.52 (0.45–0.60)0.55 (0.47–0.66)0.49 (0.41–0.58)0.52 (0.44–0.62)0.54 (0.43–0.67)
BMI§
    Tertile 142424924,3581.001.001.001.001.001.00
    Tertile 247931323,5750.95 (0.84–1.09)0.94 (0.82–1.07)0.94 (0.80–1.10)1.04 (0.88–1.23)1.00 (0.84–1.18)0.97 (0.79–1.18)
    Tertile 352034421,2251.24 (1.09–1.41)1.14 (1.00–1.30)1.20 (1.02–1.40)1.38 (1.17–1.62)1.22 (1.03–1.44)1.25 (1.01–1.53)
Diastolic blood pressure§
    Tertile 136422120,7511.001.001.001.001.001.00
    Tertile 244527123,2320.95 (0.82–1.09)0.92 (0.80–1.06)0.95 (0.80–1.13)0.94 (0.78–1.12)0.89 (0.74–1.07)0.98 (0.78–1.23)
    Tertile 361441425,1751.23 (1.08–1.41)1.22 (1.06–1.40)1.26 (1.06–1.50)1.36 (1.15–1.61)1.29 (1.08–1.54)1.45 (1.16–1.81)
Systolic blood pressure§
    Tertile 135519823,8961.001.001.001.001.001.00
    Tertile 243026622,7141.00 (0.87–1.15)1.00 (0.87–1.16)1.09 (0.92–1.30)1.07 (0.89–1.29)1.06 (0.88–1.28)1.29 (1.03–1.63)
    Tertile 363844222,5481.35 (1.18–1.55)1.34 (1.17–1.53)1.49 (1.26–1.75)1.60 (1.35–1.90)1.55 (1.30–1.84)1.84 (1.48–2.29)
Total cholesterol§
    Tertile 137021720,8881.001.001.001.001.001.00
    Tertile 246729723,9230.97 (0.84–1.11)0.99 (0.86–1.13)0.97 (0.82–1.14)1.04 (0.87–1.24)1.05 (0.88–1.26)1.09 (0.87–1.35)
    Tertile 358639224,3471.07 (0.93–1.22)1.08 (0.94–1.23)1.09 (0.93–1.28)1.19 (1.00–1.41)1.20 (1.01–1.43)1.23 (0.99–1.52)
Smoking status
    Never75049939,1471.001.001.001.001.001.00
    Former24716710,5760.99 (0.84–1.18)1.00 (0.84–1.19)1.09 (0.88–1.35)1.01 (0.81–1.25)1.01 (0.81–1.26)1.02 (0.78–1.34)
    Current42624019,4341.52 (1.31–1.76)1.50 (1.30–1.74)1.53 (1.28–1.82)1.35 (1.12–1.63)1.34 (1.11–1.63)1.35 (1.08–1.70)
  • *

    * Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, and study year;

  • model 2 included the following variables: for physical activity: age, sex, study year, education, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level, and smoking; for BMI: age, sex, study year, education, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level, and smoking; for diastolic and systolic blood pressure: age, sex, study year, education, physical activity, BMI, total cholesterol, and smoking; for cholesterol: age, sex, study year, education, physical activity, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and smoking; for smoking: age, sex, study year, education, physical activity, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol;

  • model 3 represents model 2 with exclusion of 770 subjects who were diagnosed at baseline with CHD, stroke, and/or heart failure, who may have been physically inactive because of severe disease or disability at baseline, or who died during the first 2 years of follow-up;

  • §

    § cut points for tertiles of BMI were 27.1 and 30.4 kg/m2 in men and 28.0 and 32.6 kg/m2 in women, cut points for tertiles of diastolic blood pressure were 88 and 98 mmHg in men and 87 and 98 mmHg in women, cut points for tertiles of systolic blood pressure were 141 and 158 mmHg in men and 144 and 165 mmHg in women, and cut points for tertiles of total cholesterol were 5.8 and 6.9 mmol/l in men and 6.0 and 7.0 mmol/l in women.