Table 3—

Association between prognostic factors and outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia, results of bivariate analysis

In-hospital mortality
In-hospital complications*
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Demographics
    Age (per decade)1.88 (1.65–2.14)<0.0011.19 (1.12–1.26)<0.001
    Male1.01 (0.77–1.34)0.931.02 (0.84–1.23)0.85
    Nursing home resident3.84 (2.84–5.18)<0.0011.72 (1.35–2.19)<0.001
Comorbidities
    Prior history of diabetes1.00 (0.69–1.45)0.991.14 (0.89–1.47)0.29
    Altered mental status2.97 (2.18–4.06)<0.0012.20 (1.73–2.80)<0.001
    Neoplasm2.48 (1.69–3.64)<0.0011.82 (1.35–2.46)<0.001
    Liver disease0.57 (0.21–1.57)0.280.93 (0.53–1.63)0.80
    Congestive heart failure1.65 (1.20–2.29)0.0021.38 (1.09–1.74)0.008
    Cerebrovascular disease1.72 (1.15–2.59)0.0091.61 (1.19–2.17)0.002
    Renal disease2.96 (2.16–4.07)<0.0011.93 (1.51–2.48)<0.001
    Pleural effusion on CXR1.93 (1.43–2.60)<0.0011.62 (1.30–2.01)<0.001
    Taking four or more medications1.62 (1.22–2.15)<0.0011.50 (1.24–1.82)<0.001
At presentation
    Temperature <35 or ≥40°C0.59 (0.14–2.47)0.471.96 (0.99–3.89)0.06
    Heart rate ≥125 bpm1.53 (1.06–2.19)0.021.21 (0.93–1.59)0.16
    Respiratory rate ≥30/min2.23 (1.68–2.97)<0.0011.38 (1.12–1.70)0.002
    Oxygen saturation ≤89%1.36 (1.01–1.83)0.040.97 (0.79–1.20)0.79
    Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg4.21 (2.23–7.96)<0.0011.51 (0.82–2.79)0.19
Laboratory measurements, glucose (mmol/l)
    6.11–11.0 compared with ≤6.11.20 (0.88–1.65)0.251.10 (0.89–1.36)0.37
    11.01–13.99 compared with ≤6.11.79 (1.01–3.16)0.051.53 (1.01–2.32)0.04
    ≥14 compared with ≤6.11.69 (0.97–2.94)0.071.52 (1.02–2.25)0.04
    Sodium <130 mmol/l1.43 (0.85–2.38)0.171.44 (0.99–2.07)0.05
    Hematocrit <0.302.15 (1.48–3.13)<0.0011.70 (1.27–2.27)<0.001
    Blood urea nitrogen ≥11 mmol/l4.69 (3.50–6.28)<0.0011.98 (1.59–2.46)<0.001
  • The above factors are components of the Pneumonia Severity Index (except number of medications prior to admission and prior history of diabetes).

  • *

    * In-hospital complications do not include abnormalities of blood glucose.