Table 1—

Characteristics of study participants by race (N = 686)

White (%)Black (%)Latino (%)Other (%)P value
n4481227046
Age (years)0.02
    22–5525422539
    55–7039357537
    >713622024
Male76383367<0.001
Education<0.001
    Less than high school22217025
    High school31291215
    Some college47491860
Annual income<0.001
    <$10,00016204710
    $10,001–30,00051644436
    >$30,000339954
Length of diabetes0.05
    ≤3 years29212536
    ≥4 years71797564
Hypoglycemic regimen0.067
    Oral medications only70575770
    Insulin ± oral medication23363728
    No medication7662
Outpatient visits in past year3.4 ± 2.35.6 ± 3.37.4 ± 4.43.3 ± 2.4<0.001
Last HbA1c checked (%)7.3 ± 1.47.8 ± 2.28.5 ± 2.37.0 ± 1.2<0.001
Health system
    VA5223764<0.001
    AMC4813726
    Inner-city0648610
Strongly agreed that diabetes doctor answers questions fully30%36%37%30%0.49
Had biomedically accurate assessment of diabetes control48%52%50%57%0.64
Self-reported understanding of diabetes self-care*3.54 ± 0.913.69 ± 0.913.20 ± 0.963.64 ± 0.98<0.001
Diabetes care self-efficacy*70.6 ± 18.775.8 ± 17.971.5 ± 15.770.6 ± 20.60.06
  • Data are frequencies (or percent) or means ± SD for respondents with available HbA1c data. Because of rounding, percentages may not equal 100.

  • *

    * Range of understanding scale was 1–5 and range of self-efficacy scale was 0–100; for both, higher scores are better.