Table 1—

Selected anthropometrics, abdominal fat, metabolic and energy intake, expenditure variables, hormonal concentrations, and upper- and lower-body strength during the control period (week −4 to 0) and after the 16-week training period (weeks 8 and 16)

Week −4Week 0Week 8Week 16
Age66.6 ± 3.1
Anthropometrics
    Body weight (kg)80.6 ± 9.880.3 ± 10.080.3 ± 10.379.8 ± 10.2
    BMI (kg/m−2)28.3 ± 2.728.2 ± 2.728.1 ± 2.828.3 ± 2.7
    Sum of skinfold (mm)141.3 ± 35.3138.9 ± 36.5135.7 ± 35.9127.1 ± 35.1*
    Body fat (%)24.0 ± 3.923.7 ± 4.023.4 ± 3.922.4 ± 3.9*
Abdominal fat
    Subcutaneous fat (cm3)364.9 ± 137.3356.0 ± 127.5308.6 ± 118.8†
    Visceral fat (cm3)255.4 ± 94.1249.5 ± 97.9225.6 ± 96.6*
Energy intake (kcal/day)2,332.7 ± 346.02,287.1 ± 354.72,619.0 ± 472.1†
Habitual physical activity (kcal/day)2,344.5 ± 485.52,261.3 ± 361.42,437.7 ± 393.3
(P = 0.07)
Metabolic variables
Fasting plasma glucose levels (mg/dl)150.6 ± 28.1146.6 ± 28.3147.3 ± 33.7135.0 ± 29.3†
HbA1c levels (%)6.2 ± 0.96.2 ± 0.95.8 ± 1.26.2 ± 0.9
(P = 0.06)
Insulin sensitivity index (· 10−4 · min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)2.0 ± 1.22.8 ± 1.6*
Hormonal concentrations
    Total testosterone (μg/ml)4.0 ± 1.63.1 ± 0.82.9 ± 1.33.0 ± 1.3
    Free testosterone (pg/ml)15.5 ± 7.313.2 ± 4.513.9 ± 8.112.5 ± 6.8
    Cortisol (μg/ml)13.6 ± 4.612.4 ± 3.613.8 ± 3.411.4 ± 2.5
Muscle strength performance
    1-RM bench press (kg)62.7 ± 7.163.3 ± 6.968.4 ± 6.7*74.1 ± 7.6*
    1-RM half squat (kg)103.0 ± 9.7104.5 ± 8.0116.7 ± 8.2*124.2 ± 8.0*
  • Values are means ± SD. *P < 0.001 and †P < 0.05 vs. the corresponding pretraining value.