Table 1—

Baseline characteristics in median values (interquartile range) and mortality in categories of glucose tolerance status (n = 604)

NGM*IGMNew diabetes
n277208119
Baseline
    Age (years)63.8 (11.7)64.7 (12.6)66.2 (10.4)
    Sex (% male)48.448.647.9
    BMI (kg/m2)25.6 (4.2)27.4 (4.7)28.1 (5.1)
    Waist circumference (cm)89.5 (13.2)95.0 (15.0)99.5 (15.8)
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.30 (0.55)6.05 (0.79)7.40 (1.75)
    2-h postload glucose (mmol/l)5.75 (2.23)8.50 (1.54)12.65 (4.95)
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.30 (0.80)1.70 (1.10)2.00 (1.50)
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.35 (0.49)1.17 (0.47)1.10 (0.36)
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)6.60 (1.50)6.80 (1.50)6.50 (1.70)
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.0 (13.0)83.0 (11.5)84.3 (11.5)
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130.5 (22.0)140 (27.4)144 (20.8)
    Hypertension (%)27.548.655.5
    Current smoker (%)31.421.621.0
    Fasting-specific insulin (pmol/l)72.1 (36.8)88.6 (53.9)117.2 (70.4)
    Fasting proinsulin (pmol/l)9.5 (7.9)14.2 (12.9)21.7 (20.0)
    Proinsulin-to-insulin ratio0.12 (0.11)0.14 (0.13)0.16 (0.14)
    Postload-specific insulin (pmol/l)310.5 (260.4)532.6 (542.7)600.5 (567.3)
    Postload proinsulin (pmol/l)49.8 (49.2)74.9 (63.4)93.4 (67.2)
    HOMA-IR2.80 (1.55)4.01 (2.47)6.61 (4.53)
    HOMA-B137.4 (75.5)123.2 (85.8)104.4 (81.3)
11-year follow-up
    All-cause death [n (%)]59 (21.3)55 (26.4)42 (35.3)
    CVD mortality or sudden death [n (%)]20 (7.2)22 (10.6)17 (14.3)
  • Values within parentheses represent interquartile ranges unless otherwise indicated. Linear regression for continuous variables: P <0.05, except for total cholesterol (P = 0.98). Logistic regression for percentages: P <0.05, except for sex (P = 0.69) and CVD mortality (P = 0.10).

  • *

    * Glucose tolerance status based on the mean fasting and 2-h postload glucose levels of two oral glucose tolerance tests;

  • based on the mean of two measurements;

  • hypertension (diastolic blood pressure ≥95 mmHg or systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg or medication). NGM, normal glucose metabolism (fasting glucose <6.1 mmol/l and 2-h glucose <7.8 mmol/l); IGM, impaired glucose metabolism (fasting glucose ≥6.1 and <7.0 mmol/l or 2-h glucose ≥7.8 and <11.1 mmol/l); diabetes, fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l or 2-h glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l; HOMA-IR, fasting insulin (in microunits per milliliter) × fasting glucose (in millimoles per liter)/22.5; HOMA-B, fasting insulin (in microunits per milliliter) × 20/fasting glucose (in millimoles per liter) − 3.5.