Table 3—

Hazard ratios for fasting and postload insulin and proinsulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B (n = 604)

IR valueHR per increase in IR (95% CI) for all-cause mortalityHR per increase in IR (95% CI) for CVD mortality
Fasting-specific insulin51.6 pmol/l
Model 11.15 (0.98–1.35)1.14 (0.87–1.49)
Model 21.09 (0.91–1.31)1.04 (0.77–1.40)
    Model 31.00 (0.71–1.41)0.92 (0.53–1.60)
    Model 1 + proinsulin1.00 (0.81–1.22)0.90 (0.65–1.25)
Fasting proinsulin12.8 pmol/l
    Model 11.21 (1.04–1.42)1.33 (1.06–1.66)
    Model 21.19 (1.00–1.40)1.27 (1.00–1.63)
    Model 31.21 (1.00–1.46)1.34 (1.01–1.76)
    Model 3 + triglycerides1.18 (0.97–1.43)1.29 (0.97–1.72)
    Model 3 + hypertension*1.19 (0.98–1.44)1.31 (0.99–1.73)
    Model 3 + current smoking1.23 (1.01–1.49)1.37 (1.03–1.81)
Proinsulin-to-insulin ratio0.12
    Model 11.11 (0.96–1.28)1.19 (0.97–1.47)
    Model 21.10 (0.95–1.28)1.17 (0.95–1.45)
    Model 31.11 (0.95–1.29)1.18 (0.95–1.47)
Postload-specific insulin408 pmol/l
    Model 11.06 (0.95–1.19)1.10 (0.93–1.31)
    Model 21.03 (0.91–1.17)1.06 (0.87–1.28)
    Model 31.01 (0.88–1.16)1.04 (0.85–1.28)
Postload proinsulin57.5 pmol/l
    Model 11.12 (0.92–1.37)1.26 (0.93–1.70)
    Model 21.07 (0.87–1.33)1.16 (0.84–1.61)
    Model 31.06 (0.85–1.31)1.15 (0.82–1.60)
HOMA-IR2.82
    Model 11.16 (1.01–1.32)1.16 (0.94–1.44)
    Model 21.10 (0.93–1.30)1.07 (0.82–1.40)
    Model 3
    Model 1 + proinsulin1.00 (0.83–1.20)0.97 (0.73–1.29)
HOMA-B82.3
    Model 10.99 (0.83–1.19)0.94 (0.69–1.28)
    Model 21.03 (0.86–1.24)0.99 (0.73–1.35)
    Model 30.99 (0.81–1.21)0.95 (0.68–1.34)
  • HOMA-IR, fasting insulin (in microunits per milliliter) × fasting glucose (in millimoles per liter)/22.5; HOMA-B, fasting insulin (in microunits per milliliter) × 20/fasting glucose (in millimoles per liter) − 3.5.

  • *

    * Hypertension: Diastolic blood pressure ≥95 mmHg or systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg or medication. Model 1: Adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: Adjusted for age, sex, and glucose tolerance status. Model 3: Adjusted for age, sex, glucose tolerance status, and HOMA-IR. IR, interquartile range.