Table 2—

Crude and adjusted associations between individual characteristics, community characteristics, and regular physical activity in a rural diabetic population

Characteristic%*Crude PORAdjusted POR
Individual health
    No current smoking79.41.68 (0.93–3.05)1.19 (0.60–2.35)
    No physical impairment66.25.17 (2.95–9.07)3.67 (2.00–6.73)
    Not been told heart disease67.41.80 (1.06–3.06)1.06 (0.58–1.95)
    BMI category (compared with obese)48.5
    Normal19.43.66 (1.48–9.02)2.57 (0.98–6.74)
    Overweight32.11.63 (0.90–2.96)1.27 (0.66–2.46)
    Health status (good/very good/excellent)§49.33.98 (2.20–7.21)2.52 (1.29–4.95)
    Income <$2500051.50.62 (0.36–1.05)1.08 (0.58–2.04)
    Male32.41.33 (0.75–2.34)1.21 (0.64–2.30)
MD advice
    MD advised exercise more68.41.22 (0.71–2.10)1.34 (0.71–2.51)
    MD helped make plan51.62.13 (1.11–4.10)2.79 (1.34–5.80)
    MD followed up plan63.42.36 (1.24–4.49)2.20 (1.09–4.43)
Community facility use
    Park use38.24.24 (2.15–8.34)4.21 (1.94–9.14)
    Recreation center use25.011.00 (3.27–36.98)12.20 (2.74–54.27)
    Trail use31.65.43 (2.42–12.18)3.81 (1.55–9.38)
    School use15.74.55 (1.51–13.72)3.37 (1.03–11.01)
    Health club use23.510.05 (2.98–33.88)7.48 (2.12–26.37)
    Facility use (compared with 0)33.8
        1 or 247.14.41 (2.43–7.99)4.64 (2.37–9.08)
        3 or more (up to 6)19.121.48 (4.87–94.74)14.30 (3.04–67.26)
Community characteristics/ aesthetics
    Rate community as very pleasant/pleasant for physical activity89.03.05 (1.53–6.09)2.27 (1.07–4.81)
    Places for physical activity75.01.50 (0.85–2.65)1.18 (0.62–2.24)
    Community-organized recreation events69.01.84 (1.11–3.05)1.50 (0.88–2.55)
    Many places to walk74.32.94 (1.70–5.09)2.30 (1.25–4.23)
    Often walk to nearby places41.94.19 (2.20–7.98)4.11 (2.03–8.33)
    Sidewalks47.11.22 (0.73–2.05)1.28 (0.71–2.29)
    Shoulder on streets47.82.64 (1.51–4.62)2.41 (1.29–4.49)
    Interesting things to look at72.12.12 (1.23–3.64)1.76 (0.96–3.21)
    Tree-lined streets89.70.95 (0.40–2.23)0.66 (0.26–1.70)
    Community well maintained85.32.30 (1.21–4.37)1.58 (0.78–3.22)
    Community garbage free86.02.22 (1.15–4.27)1.87 (0.90–3.91)
Social engagement
    Belong to religious organization75.71.49 (0.84–2.64)1.23 (0.65–2.34)
    Belong to community organization35.32.08 (1.15–3.77)1.27 (0.64–2.51)
    Gotten together with social clubs36.82.00 (1.12–3.57)1.47 (0.76–2.84)
Social cohesion
    Safe from crime81.32.08 (1.14–3.81)1.39 (0.70–2.75)
    Safe from traffic67.91.99 (1.17–3.40)1.45 (0.80–2.63)
    Trust85.72.03 (1.04–3.94)1.31 (0.62–2.79)
    Help with destruction87.92.05 (1.01–4.14)1.48 (0.68–3.20)
    Good community95.62.89 (1.05–7.98)1.60 (0.52–4.97)
    Same values87.32.56 (1.30–5.04)2.00 (0.93–4.28)
    Others take advantage (reverse coded)77.61.27 (0.69–2.33)0.78 (0.39–1.54)
    Composite social cohesion (trust, good community, same values, others take advantage-reverse coded)74.21.49 (0.83–2.67)0.96 (0.51–1.90)
  • Data are PORs (95% CI), unless otherwise indicated, and are adjusted for BMI, health status, and physical impairment, unless noted otherwise.

  • *

    * % of regular activity group with characteristic.

  • Adjusted for BMI and health status only.

  • Adjusted for physical impairment and health status only.

  • §

    § Adjusted for BMI and physical impairment only.