Table 2—

Plasma adiponectin concentration according to quintiles of carbohydrate intake,* glycemic index, and glycemic load

Quintiles
P for trend
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Carbohydrate37.9 (163)43.2 (153)46.9 (156)50.3 (147)55.6 (138)
    Range<40.640.6–45.045.1–48.548.5–52.6≥52.6
    Model 116.115.515.015.615.60.231
    Model 216.115.615.315.615.60.242
    Model 315.915.315.315.715.90.253
    Model 416.315.515.215.615.50.613
Glycemic index49.2 (151)51.3 (152)52.5 (157)54.0 (149)56.0 (148)
    Range<50.450.4–51.951.9–53.353.3–54.9≥54.9
    Model 115.916.315.715.514.50.046
    Model 216.116.715.715.114.40.015
    Model 316.416.915.714.914.30.005
    Model 416.216.715.815.014.50.028
Glycemic load97 (160)112 (154)123 (156)133 (149)149 (138)
    Range<105105–118118–128129–140≥140
    Model 116.115.215.915.215.40.144
    Model 216.215.316.415.214.90.067
    Model 317.215.516.215.014.10.004
    Model 417.215.516.115.114.20.006
  • Data are median (n). Model 1: adjusted for age; model 2: adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, aspirin use, HbA1c, and history of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia; model 3: in addition to the variables adjusted in model 2, further adjusted for the dietary factors (total energy intake, glycemic load, and fibers) that were not examined as the primary independent variable; model 4: in addition to variables adjusted in model 3, further adjusted for magnesium.

  • *

    * Presented as percent of total energy.