Table 1—

Clinical data of the control and diabetic subjects

ControlDSPDSP+
n16060128
Age (years)45.5 ± 19.448.7 ± 13.658.0 ± 13.1*
BMI (kg/m2)24.7 ± 4.928.2 ± 7.528.9 ± 6.1
Sex (% M/F)37.5/62.556.7/43.360.2/39.8
Smokers (%)23.720.024.2
Room temperature (°C)22.4 ± 1.523.3 ± 1.923.2 ± 2.0
Type 1/type 2 diabetes (%)45.0/55.035.2/64.8
Insulin treatment (%)66.680.5
Duration of diabetes (years)10.4 ± 10.614.7 ± 11.4
HbA1c (%)8.7 ± 2.39.1 ± 2.0
Triglycerides (mg/dl)127 (39–489)131 (37–1,660)
Cholesterol (mg/dl)202 ± 49.7203 ± 42.8
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)52.0 ± 20.448.7 ± 17.5
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)121 ± 35119 ± 33.6
Creatinine (mg/dl)0.8 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.6
Albuminuria (μg/min)4.8 (0.2–1,737)8.2 (0.2–3,198)
Retinopathy (%)26.346.6
  • Data are means ± SD, median (range), or percent.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. control and DSP;

  • P < 0.05 vs. control;

  • P < 0.05 vs. DSP.