Table 1—

Unadjusted prevalence and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence limits of having the metabolic syndrome by quintiles of serum vitamin D concentration among 8,421 U.S. adults aged ≥20 years, NHANES III, 1988–1994

Quintiles of vitamin D (nmol/l)
1 (≤48.4)2 (48.5–63.4)3 (63.5–78.1)4 (78.2–96.3)5 (≥96.4)P*
Metabolic syndrome
    Unadjusted prevalence27.5 (1.7)26.6 (1.4)23.3 (1.5)18.7 (1.3)13.5 (1.7)<0.001
    Model 11.000.91 (0.72, 1.17)0.80 (0.62, 1.03)0.65 (0.51, 0.83)0.49 (0.37, 0.66)<0.001
    Model 2§1.000.82 (0.60, 1.10)0.75 (0.55, 1.02)0.60 (0.44, 0.83)0.46 (0.32, 0.67)<0.001
Components of the metabolic syndrome
    Abdominal obesity
Unadjusted prevalence49.9 (1.9)43.7 (1.9)37.2 (1.5)31.0 (1.5)19.3 (1.5)<0.001
Model 11.000.74 (0.60, 0.91)0.58 (0.49, 0.70)0.47 (0.37, 0.59)0.27 (0.21, 0.33)<0.001
Model 2§1.000.78 (0.61, 0.98)0.65 (0.52, 0.81)0.55 (0.41, 0.72)0.30 (0.21, 0.42)<0.001
Model 31.000.79 (0.63, 0.98)0.68 (0.55, 0.85)0.58 (0.44, 0.76)0.32 (0.23, 0.45)<0.001
    Hypertriglyceridemia
Unadjusted prevalence29.3 (1.5)32.8 (1.4)32.0 (2.0)24.4 (1.8)24.2 (2.6)<0.001
Model 11.001.16 (0.96, 1.41)1.17 (0.93, 1.47)0.83 (0.66, 1.06)0.90 (0.70, 1.14)0.016
Model 2§1.000.89 (0.69, 1.15)0.88 (0.67, 1.16)0.58 (0.45, 0.75)0.59 (0.44, 0.80)<0.001
Model 31.000.98 (0.75, 1.27)1.03 (0.78, 1.37)0.66 (0.50, 0.86)0.76 (0.57, 1.01)0.002
Model 41.001.00 (0.80, 1.24)1.02 (0.80, 1.31)0.67 (0.52, 0.85)0.84 (0.64, 1.10)0.005
    Low HDL cholesterol
Unadjusted prevalence39.8 (1.9)37.9 (1.8)38.4 (2.3)36.6 (2.1)33.3 (2.3)0.031
Model 11.000.92 (0.75, 1.12)0.94 (0.73, 1.22)0.88 (0.69, 1.10)0.77 (0.60, 0.97)0.172
Model 2§1.000.84 (0.69, 1.04)0.89 (0.69, 1.16)0.81 (0.64, 1.03)0.71 (0.56, 0.90)0.050
Model 31.000.88 (0.71, 1.09)0.99 (0.76, 1.29)1.03 (0.80, 1.31)0.96 (0.76, 1.22)0.636
Model 41.000.88 (0.71, 1.08)0.99 (0.76, 1.29)1.03 (0.82, 1.30)0.92 (0.72, 1.17)0.567
    High blood pressure
Unadjusted prevalence34.4 (1.5)36.5 (1.7)30.7 (2.1)29.5 (1.8)23.9 (1.9)<0.001
Model 11.001.06 (0.89, 1.26)0.84 (0.67, 1.05)0.91 (0.69, 1.20)0.79 (0.61, 1.02)0.067
Model 2§1.001.10 (0.89, 1.37)0.91 (0.71, 1.18)1.00 (0.73, 1.37)0.88 (0.63, 1.21)0.416
Model 31.001.17 (0.95, 1.44)1.00 (0.77, 1.30)1.16 (0.85, 1.59)1.07 (0.77, 1.50)0.489
    Hyperglycemia
Unadjusted prevalence14.6 (1.0)15.1 (1.2)9.9 (1.2)10.8 (1.1)6.3 (1.0)<0.001
Model 11.001.01 (0.78, 1.31)0.63 (0.44, 0.90)0.78 (0.58, 1.05)0.50 (0.34, 0.73)<0.001
Model 2§1.000.92 (0.69, 1.23)0.59 (0.40, 0.87)0.71 (0.50, 1.01)0.44 (0.29, 0.68)<0.001
Model 31.000.98 (0.74, 1.29)0.61 (0.42, 0.89)0.83 (0.59, 1.18)0.54 (0.35, 0.84)0.005
  • *

    * For prevalence, P value is for a test for linear trend; for odds ratio, P value is for the Wald χ2 test.

  • Data represent % (SE).

  • Model 1: adjusted for age.

  • §

    § Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, race or ethnicity, education, smoking status, cotinine concentration, total cholesterol concentration, C-reactive protein concentration, alcohol use, physical activity, intake of fruits and vegetables, vitamin or supplement use, and season of study participation.

  • Model 3: adjusted for all variables in model 2 plus other components of the metabolic syndrome.

  • Model 4: adjusted for all variables in model 3 minus concentration of total cholesterol.