Table 1—

Characteristics of study sample

n1,642
Age (years)50.8 ± 8.2
Female811 (49.4)
Ethnicity
    Caucasian1,180 (73.5)
    African American181 (11.3)
    Asian or Pacific Islander188 (11.7)
    Other57 (3.6)
Education level
    Not a high school graduate45 (2.8)
    High school graduate183 (11.2)
    Some college711 (43.6)
    College graduate379 (23.2)
    Postgraduate education313 (19.2)
Type 1 diabetes147 (9.0)
BMI (kg/m2)
    <30634 (39.1)
    30 to <35414 (25.5)
    35 to <40285 (17.6)
    ≥40288 (17.8)
HbA1c (%)
    <7.0482 (29.4)
    7.0 to <8.0445 (27.1)
    8.0 to <10.0490 (29.8)
    ≥10225 (13.7)
Diabetes complications
    0659 (40.1)
    1565 (34.4)
    2246 (15.0)
    ≥3172 (10.5)
Comorbidity
    Lowest743 (45.3)
    2nd quartile503 (30.6)
    3rd quartile211 (12.9)
    Highest185 (11.3)
Diabetes symptoms (out of 10)
    0–1646 (39.7)
    2–4641 (39.4)
    ≥5340 (20.9)
Times exercised ≥30 min/week
    <3717 (44.1)
    3–4420 (25.8)
    ≥5489 (30.1)
Smoked in the previous 7 days230 (14.2)
Depressive symptoms
    Not depressed1,243 (75.7)
    Minor depression132 (8.0)
    Major depression/dysthymia267 (16.3)
Experienced any work disability305 (18.6)
    Disabled or otherwise unemployed194 (11.8)
    Missed ≥5 work days in prior month82 (6.7)
    Had severe difficulty with work tasks50 (4.0)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).