Table 2—

Relative risk estimates for disability risk factors estimated by Poisson regression for three indicators of work disability

Risk factor (reference group)Disabled or otherwise unemployedMissed ≥5 days from work in the prior monthHad severe difficulty with work tasks
n1,5561,1681,175
Depression (not depressed)
    Minor depression1.70 (1.1–2.6)*1.77 (0.9–3.6)3.15 (1.2–8.0)*
    Major depression2.09 (1.5–2.8)2.84 (1.7–4.7)4.50 (2.3–8.7)
Diabetes symptoms (0–1)
    2–41.83 (1.3–2.7)1.67 (0.9–3.1)7.12 (1.7–29.8)
    ≥52.42 (1.6–3.6)2.66 (1.4–5.0)10.3 (2.3–45.6)
Comorbidity (1st quartile)
    2nd quartile RxRisk1.54 (1.0–2.3)*1.69 (1.0–2.9)2.45 (1.1–5.3)*
    3rd quartile RxRisk1.66 (1.1–2.6)*1.76 (0.9–3.4)2.83 (1.2–6.8)*
    4th quartile RxRisk2.52 (1.7–3.8)2.39 (1.2–4.9)*2.66 (1.0–6.9)*
Diabetes complications (0)
    11.19 (0.8–1.8)1.51 (0.9–2.5)1.02 (0.5–2.0)
    21.54 (1.0–2.4)*1.44 (0.8–2.7)1.13 (0.5–2.6)
    ≥32.55 (1.7–3.8)1.57 (0.7–3.4)1.04 (0.4–2.5)
Glycemic control (HbA1c <7%)
    7 to <8%0.99 (0.7–1.4)0.87 (0.5–1.6)1.23 (0.6–2.7)
    8 to <10%0.73 (0.5–1.0)1.00 (0.6–1.8)1.19 (0.6–2.5)
    ≥10%0.47 (0.3–0.8)1.18 (0.6–2.2)1.36 (0.6–3.1)
Type 1 vs. type 2 status (type 2)
    Type 11.88 (1.2–3.0)0.60 (0.1–2.5)0.57 (0.1–6.2)
BMI (<30 kg/m2 )
    30 to <350.76 (0.5–1.1)1.25 (0.7–2.3)1.12 (0.5–2.6)
    35 to <400.76 (0.5–1.1)0.89 (0.4–1.8)1.25 (0.5–3.4)
    ≥400.87 (0.6–1.3)1.08 (0.6–2.0)1.40 (0.6–3.5)
Exercise frequency (<3 times/week)
    3–40.98 (0.7–1.4)1.02 (0.6–1.7)0.84 (0.4–1.8)
    ≥51.07 (0.8–1.5)1.23 (0.7–2.0)1.26 (0.6–2.7)
Current smoker (No)
    Yes1.09 (0.8–1.5)1.31 (0.8–2.2)1.14 (0.6–2.1)
Sex (Male)
    Female1.06 (0.8–1.4)1.18 (0.7–1.9)1.23 (0.7–2.3)
Ethnicity (Caucasian)
    Asian or Pacific Islander0.81 (0.4–1.5)1.18 (0.6–2.4)1.02 (0.4–2.6)
    African American1.47 (1.0–2.2)*1.64 (0.9–2.9)0.61 (0.2–2.0)
    Other1.40 (0.7–2.6)1.93 (0.8–4.5)0.51 (0.1–3.2)
Education (high school)
    Some college0.61 (0.5–0.8)0.62 (0.4–1.0)0.70 (0.3–1.5)
  • Data are relative risk estimates (95% CIs). Odds ratios are also adjusted for age, which was not associated with any of the work disability measures.

  • *

    * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01.