Table 3—

Relative risk estimates for any of the three forms of work disability estimated by Poisson regression for three indicators of work disability

Risk factor (reference group)Any of the three forms of work disability
n1,337
Depression (not depressed)
    Minor depression1.80 (1.3–2.5)*
    Major depression2.26 (1.8–2.8)*
Diabetes symptoms (0–1)
    2–41.93 (1.4–2.6)*
    ≥52.52 (1.8–3.5)*
Comorbidity (1st quartile)
    2nd quartile RxRisk1.60 (1.2–2.1)*
    3rd quartile RxRisk1.66 (1.2–2.3)*
    4th quartile RxRisk2.25 (1.7–3.1)*
Diabetes complications (0)
    11.30 (1.0–1.7)
    21.42 (1.0–1.9)
    ≥31.92 (1.4–2.6)*
Glycemic control (HbA1c <7%)
    7 to <8%0.96 (0.7–1.2)
    8 to <10%0.87 (0.7–1.1)
    ≥10%0.82 (0.6–1.1)
Type 1 vs. type 2 status (type 2)
    Type 11.28 (0.9–1.9)
BMI (<30 kg/m2)
    30 to <350.94 (0.7–1.2)
    35 to <400.83 (0.6–1.1)
    ≥401.01 (0.8–1.3)
Exercise frequency (<3 times/week)
    3–40.97 (0.8–1.2)
    ≥51.14 (0.9–1.4)
Current smoker (No)
    Yes1.19 (0.9–1.5)
Gender (Male)
    Female1.10 (0.9–1.4)
Ethnicity (Caucasian)
    Asian or Pacific Islander0.90 (0.6–1.4)
    African American1.32 (1.0–1.8)
    Other1.32 (0.8–2.1)
Education (high school)
    Some college0.66 (0.5–0.8)*
  • Data are relative risks (95% CIs). Odds ratios are also adjusted for age, which was not associated with overall work disability.

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05.