Table 1—

Effects of physical activity counseling on energy expenditure (METs per hour per week); body weight; BMI; waist circumference; FPG; HbA1c; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; resting heart rate; serum total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; serum triglycerides; and 10-year CHD risk in 179 type 2 diabetic subjects divided into six groups on the basis of different amounts of energy expenditure

Group 0 (n = 28) A
Group 1–10 (n = 27) B
Group 11–20 (n = 31) C
Group 21–30 (n = 27) D
Group 31–40 (n = 32) E
Group >40 (n = 34) F
Between-group comparisons
BasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangePPost hoc analysis
Energy expenditure (METs · h-1 · week-1)0.3 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.3 (0.0–1.1)0.3 ± 0.26.30 ± 0.4 (5.7–7.2)*0.4 ± 0.217.1 ± 0.4 (16–17.9)0.7 ± 0.327.0 ± 0.5 (25.9–28)0.9 ± 0.437.5 ± 0.5 (36–38.5)0.8 ± 0.358.3 ± 1.8 (54.3–62)0.000All groups differ
Weight (kg)80.8 ± 2.00.8 ± 0.5 (−0.3 to 1.9)82.0 ± 2.60.6 ± 0.7 (−0.8 to 1.9)81.3 ± 2.90.1 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.8)81.9 ± 2.2−2.2 ± 0.2 (−2.6 to −1.7)83.1 ± 1.7−3.0 ± 0.3 (−3.6 to −2.4)79.8 ± 2.0−3.2 ± 0.3 (−3.7 to −2.7)0.268
BMI (kg/m2)29.5 ± 0.60.3 ± 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.7)29.1 ± 0.60.3 ± 0.3 (−0.3 to 0.8)28.9 ± 0.40.03 ± 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.3)29.3 ± 0.4−0.8 ± 0.1 (−0.9 to −0.6)29.4 ± 0.5−1.0 ± 0.1 (−1.2 to −0.8)29.7 ± 0.4−1.2 ± 0.1 (−1.4 to −1.0)0.256
Waist circumference (cm)97.3 ± 1.61.0 ± 0.7 (−0.5 to 2.5)99.7 ± 2.41.0 ± 0.9 (−0.8 to 2.9)100.6 ± 1.8−0.9 ± 0.4 (−1.7 to −0.1)100.0 ± 2.2−3.8 ± 0.3 (−4.4 to −3.1)100.1 ± 1.8−5.5 ± 0.4 (−6.3 to −4.7)97.3 ± 1.6−7.1 ± 0.5 (−8.1 to −6.2)0.000ABC vs. F
FPG (mmol/l)9.1 ± 0.41.6 ± 2.9 (−7.5 to 4.3)9.4 ± 0.5−0.02 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.6)9.2 ± 0.3−0.39 ± 0.2 (−0.8 to 0.1)9.1 ± 0.2−1.2 ± 0.2 (−1.7 to −0.7)9.3 ± 0.3−1.6 ± 0.3 (−2.0 to −1.2)8.8 ± 0.2−1.5 ± 0.1 (−1.8 to −1.3)0.000A vs. F, B vs. DEF, C vs. EF
HbA1c (%)7.3 ± 0.20.03 ± 0.01 (−0.1 to 0.2)7.6 ± 0.3−0.06 ± 0.09 (−0.2 to 0.1)7.7 ± 0.2−0.4 ± 0.1 (−0.6 to −0.3)7.6 ± 0.2−0.9 ± 0.07 (−1.0 to −0.7)7.7 ± 0.2−1.1 ± 0.1 (−1.3 to −0.9)7.6 ± 0.2−1.0 ± 0.1 (−1.2 to −0.9)0.001B vs. EF
Maximum blood pressure (mmHg)147 ± 2−1.8 ± 0.9 (−3.6 to 0.1)145 ± 3−1.5 ± 0.9 (−3.3 to 0.3)143 ± 3−6.4 ± 2.4 (−11 to −1.5)*143 ± 3−5.6 ± 2.7 (−11 to −0.1)*142 ± 3−6.6 ± 1.0 (−8.6 to −4.4)146 ± 3−9.1 ± 0.6 (−10.3 to −8)0.061
Minimum blood pressure (mmHg)91 ± 3−4.6 ± 2.5 (−9.8 to 0.6)87 ± 1−2.4 ± 0.9 (−4.3 to −0.5)85 ± 1−2.9 ± 1.6 (−4.6 to −1.2)86 ± 1−4.8 ± 1.8 (−8.5 to −1.1)*84 ± 1−5.3 ± 0.7 (−6.8 to −3.9)*86 ± 1−7.1 ± 1.0 (−9.1 to −5.0)0.000A vs. EF, B vs. EF
Heart rate (bpm)81 ± 11.1 ± 0.7 (−0.4 to 2.4)79 ± 20.5 ± 0.9 (−1.4 to 2.4)80 ± 1−0.9 ± 0.4 (−1.7 to −0.1)79 ± 2−3.8 ± 0.3 (−4.4 to −3.1)79 ± 2−5.6 ± 0.4 (−6.3 to −4.7)76 ± 2−7.0 ± 0.5 (−8.1 to −6.2)0.000A vs. EF, B vs. F, C vs. F
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.7 ± 0.1−0.1 ± 0.05 (−0.3 to 0.1)5.5 ± 0.1−0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to 0.1)5.6 ± 0.2−0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.1)5.4 ± 0.2−0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.2)5.5 ± 0.1−0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)5.6 ± 0.2−0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.2)0.314
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.6 ± 0.1−0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to 0.3)3.4 ± 0.2−0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.5 to 0.1)3.6 ± 0.2−0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.1)3.3 ± 0.2−0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)*3.4 ± 0.1−0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)*3.6 ± 0.2−0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)0.376
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.0 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.1)1.0 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.1)1.0 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)0.1 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2)0.1 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.1 (0.2 to 0.4)*1.0 ± 0.10.2 ± 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2)0.000ABC vs. EF
Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.3 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)2.2 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)2.4 ± 0.1−0.5 ± 0.1 (−0.7 to −0.2)2.4 ± 0.1−0.6 ± 0.1 (−0.8 to −0.5)2.3 ± 0.1−0.6 ± 0.1 (−0.8 to −0.5)2.2 ± 0.1−0.8 ± 0.1 (−0.9 to −0.6)0.000AB vs. CDEF
10-year CHD risk (%)24.4 ± 1.90.1 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.7)21.3 ± 1.8−0.3 ± 0.5 (−1.2 to 0.6)22.5 ± 1.6−2.6 ± 0.6 (−3.9 to −1.3)22.9 ± 1.7−3.7 ± 0.7 (−5.2 to −2.2)24.6 ± 1.7−4.8 ± 1.0 (−6.8 to −2.8)21.1 ± 1.5−4.3 ± 1.0 (−6.3 to −2.4)*0.000A vs. CDEF
  • Data are means ± SE and means (95% CI).

  • *

    * P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.01 vs. basal. Between-group comparisons are reported in the last two columns. Significant differences are followed by post hoc results (e.g., ABC vs. F means that groups A, B, and C are not different from each other but they are all different compared with group F).