Table 1

Sample characteristics of participants

Overall
(N = 22,556)First diabetes medicationa,bPc
Metforminb
(n = 15,786)Sulfonylureab
(n = 2,879)Insulinb
(n = 1,192)Otherb
(n = 1,943)
Age (years)66.0 ± 9.664.9 ± 9.170.6 ± 10.269.6 ± 11.366.1 ± 10.1<0.001
Male sex (n, %)11,339 (50.3)7,968 (50.5)1,357 (47.1)598 (50.2)993 (51.1)0.01
Practice region<0.001
 Western Germany (n, %)16,908 (75.0)12,083 (76.5)2,002 (69.5)870 (73.0)1,397 (71.9)
 Eastern Germany (n, %)5,648 (25.0)3,703 (23.5)877 (30.5)322 (27.0)546 (28.1)
Insurance<0.001
 Private health insurance (n, %)1,480 (6.6)939 (6.0)137 (4.8)68 (5.7)279 (14.4)
 Statutory health insurance (n, %)21,076 (93.4)14,847 (94.0)2,742 (95.2)1,124 (94.3)1,664 (85.6)
Charlson index<0.001
 120,448 (90.7)14,472 (91.7)2,584 (89.8)970 (81.4)1,742 (89.7)
 21,787 (7.9)1,144 (7.3)252 (8.8)163 (13.7)171 (8.8)
 3231 (1.0)121 (0.8)28 (1.0)44 (3.7)24 (1.2)
 ≥477 (0.3)48 (0.3)15 (0.5)14 (1.2)6 (0.3)
Microvascular complications (n, %)1,098 (4.9)603 (3.8)156 (5.4)163 (13.7)133 (6.9)<0.001
Hypertension (n, %)16,824 (74.6)12,049 (76.3)2,087 (72.5)747 (62.7)1,425 (73.3)<0.001
Use of antihypertensives (n, %)16,126 (71.5)11,506 (72.9)2,113 (73.4)682 (57.2)1,368 (70.4)<0.001
Dyslipidemia (n, %)10,152 (45.0)7,503 (47.5)1,138 (39.5)351 (29.5)885 (45.6)<0.001
Use of lipid-lowering agent (n, %)5,861 (26.0)4,316 (27.3)661 (23.0)206 (17.3)529 (27.2)<0.001
Use of antithrombotic agents (n, %)5,539 (24.6)3,648 (23.1)918 (31.9)326 (27.4)495 (25.5)<0.001
Obesity diagnosis (n, %)4,354 (19.3)3,415 (21.6)329 (11.4)129 (10.8)338 (17.4)<0.001
Vaccination (n, %)346 (1.5)249 (1.6)38 (1.2)11 (0.9)43 (2.2)0.01
Ever use of diabetes medicationa
 Metformin18,851 (82.4)
 Sulfonylurea5,970 (26.5)
 Insulin3,333 (14.8)
 Other6,135 (27.2)
Incidence of cancer (n, %)1,446 (6.4)954 (6.0)274 (9.5)79 (6.6)101 (5.2)<0.001
  • aUse of diabetes medication after diagnosis of cancer was not taken into account.

  • bPatients who used more than one drug as first diabetes medication were not included.

  • cP values refer to global comparisons of first diabetes medications.