Table 2

Crude and adjusted HRs for patients with a first diabetes medication other than metformin versus patients with metformin as first therapy (outcome: cancer of all sites)

A: Sulfonylurea (as first therapy)
B: Metformin (as first therapy)A: Insulin (as first therapy)
B: Metformin (as first therapy)A: Other medication (as first therapy)
B: Metformin (as first therapy)
Person-years (mean/median/first quartile/third quartile)3.16/2.56/1.19/4.643.04/2.42/1.12/4.463.02/2.38/1.10/4.44
Cases (therapy A)27479101
Sum of person-years (therapy A)a10,033.92,957.34,625.6
Crude rate per person-year (therapy A)0.02730.02670.0218
Cases (therapy B)954954954
Sum of person-years (therapy B)a42,330.542,330.542,330.5
Crude rate per person-year (therapy B)0.02250.02250.0225
Crude rate ratio1.211.190.97
HR (crude) (95% CI)1.20 (1.05–1.38)1.19 (0.94–1.49)0.97 (0.79–1.19)
HR (model 2)1.01 (0.88–1.16)1.07 (0.85–1.35)0.94 (0.77–1.16)
HR (model 3)1.01 (0.88–1.16)1.07 (0.85–1.34)0.95 (0.77–1.17)
HR (model 4)1.02 (0.89–1.17)1.10 (0.87–1.39)0.96 (0.78–1.18)
HR (model 5)1.01 (0.88–1.17)1.09 (0.86–1.38)0.95 (0.78–1.17)
  • Model 2, adjusted for age, sex, health insurance (private or statutory), and practice region (Western or Eastern Germany); model 3, model 2 + time until prescription of first therapy; model 4, model 3 + obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and Charlson index; model 5, model 4 + use of antihypertensives, use of lipid-lowering agents, use of antithrombotic agents, vaccination (ATC J07), and prevalence of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, or nephropathy).

  • aPerson-years refer to the period from 1 year after prescription of the respective medication until cancer incidence or censoring.