Table 1—

Baseline characteristics, 8-year mortality, and CVD incidence according to retinopathy status in patients with type 1 diabetes

No retinopathyNonproliferative retinopathyProliferative retinopathyP value
n1,210795232
Baseline
    Age (years)29 ± 935 ± 1039 ± 10<0.001
    Sex (% male)4955480.02
    Duration diabetes (years)*8.4 (5.1–13.2)17.0 (12.8–22.6)24.0 (19.2–28.4)<0.001
    HbA1c(%)6.5 ± 2.06.8 ± 1.76.8 ± 1.90.001
    Hypertension (%)51638<0.001
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)116 ± 14123 ± 19131 ± 21<0.001
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 1176 ± 1179 ± 11<0.001
    BMI (kg/m2)23.1 ± 2.824.0 ± 2.823.9 ± 2.7<0.001
    Waist-to-hip ratio0.85 ± 0.130.86 ± 0.110.86 ± 0.120.091
    Waist circumference (cm)78.2 ± 9.781.8 ± 9.680.7 ± 10.4<0.001
    Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.1 ± 1.05.4 ± 1.15.7 ± 1.3<0.001
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)*0.9 (0.7–1.2)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.1 (0.8–1.6)<0.001
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.2 ± 0.93.4 ± 1.03.6 ± 1.1<0.001
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.40.066
    AER (μg/min)*0.9 (0.6–1.7)1.2 (0.7–3.0)6.0 (1.2–37.4)<0.001
    Microalbuminuria (%)182530<0.001
    Macroalbuminuria (%)2933<0.001
    Height (cm)169.5 ± 9.7169.2 ± 9.6166.3 ± 8.7<0.001
    Prior CVD (%)6918<0.001
Follow-up
    All-cause mortality18 (1.5)24 (3.0)22 (9.5)<0.001
    Nonfatal CVD incidence43 (4.1)58 (8.6)21 (11.7)<0.001
    Fatal and nonfatal CVD incidence43 (4.1)60 (8.9)25 (13.6)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range) in case of skewed distribution, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Log transformed because of skewed distribution.

  • For these analyses, we used 1,914 subjects without prevalent CVD and with available information on morbidity follow-up status. P value: test for trend (ANOVA) for continuous variables or Pearson’s χ2 test for categorical measures.