Table 2—

Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and fatal and nonfatal CVD associated with nonproliferative and proliferative retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

Model 1 and added variablesAll-cause mortality
Fatal and nonfatal CVD
Nonproliferative retinopathy
Proliferative retinopathy
Nonproliferative retinopathy
Proliferative retinopathy
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
Model 1: retinopathy, age, and sex1.45 (0.71–2.96)4.16 (1.96–8.84)1.73 (1.15–2.60)2.05 (1.22–3.45)
One-by-one adjustment
    Model 1 and diabetes duration1.74 (0.83–3.68)5.90 (2.46–14.14)1.75 (1.13–2.69)2.10 (1.17–3.77)
    Model 1 and HbA1c1.38 (0.68–2.83)3.99 (1.87–8.51)1.65 (1.09–2.49)1.98 (1.18–3.34)
    Model 1 and hypertension1.33 (0.65–2.74)3.32 (1.52–7.26)1.60 (1.06–2.42)1.79 (1.05–3.06)
    Model 1 and BMI1.51 (0.74–3.08)4.28 (2.02–9.10)1.74 (1.15–2.62)2.05 (1.22–3.46)
    Model 1 and waist-to-hip ratio1.45 (0.71–2.96)4.12 (1.94–8.76)1.72 (1.15–2.60)2.10 (1.25–3.52)
    Model 1 and triglycerides1.24 (0.60–2.55)3.73 (1.77–7.87)1.69 (1.12–2.55)2.00 (1.19–3.38)
    Model 1 and LDL cholesterol0.79 (0.33–1.88)2.78 (1.18–6.56)1.91 (1.18–3.10)2.57 (1.41–4.67)
    Model 1 and non-HDL cholesterol1.19 (0.52–2.71)3.65 (1.55–8.57)1.73 (1.15–2.61)2.03 (1.20–3.44)
    Model 1 and AER1.10 (0.52–2.32)3.09 (1.40–6.82)1.60 (1.05–2.44)1.79 (1.03–3.09)
    Model 1 and smoking status1.42 (0.70–2.90)4.35 (2.05–9.25)1.72 (1.14–2.58)2.10 (1.24–3.54)
    Model 1 and prior CVD1.43 (0.70–2.93)3.89 (1.81–8.36)1.66 (1.10–2.51)2.14 (1.27–3.60)
Multivariate model
    Model 1 and diabetes duration, HbA1c, hypertension, BMI, LDL cholesterol, AER, and prior CVD0.54 (0.19–1.53)2.06 (0.63–6.73)1.30 (0.74–2.29)1.63 (0.80–3.33)
  • HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality and fatal and nonfatal CVD analyzed by Cox’s proportional hazards analyses.