Table 1—

Characteristics of 5,675 nondiabetic subjects in the Inter99 study grouped into quartiles of HOMA-IR

Quartiles
P*
0.12 to <0.790.79 to <1.151.15 to <1.761.76 to 14.74
Participants (n)1,4251,4181,4211,411
Men (%)41.745.947.957.80.000
Physically inactive (%)29.630.137.840.20.000
Smokers (%)47.342.537.030.50.000
Normal glucose tolerant (%)91.085.880.058.80.000
Impaired fasting glucose (%)01.806.109.917.70.000
Impaired glucose tolerant (%)07.208.110.223.50.000
Age (years)45.1 (40.0–50.1)45.0 (39.9–50.2)45.0 (40.0–50.2)45.1 (40.0–50.3)0.067
BMI (kg/m2)23.3 (21.5–25.2)24.7 (22.8–26.8)26.1 (23.9–28.5)28.9 (26.0–32.2)0.000
Waist (cm)78.0 (71.0–86.0)83.0 (75.0–91.0)87.0 (78.0–95.0)95.0 (87.0–104.0)0.000
Energy (kcal)2,448 (1,965–3,042)2,359 (1,873–2,983)2,432 (1,925–3,037)2,377 (1,918–2,976)0.000
Fat (E%)32.6 (27.5–39.0)33.3 (28.3–39.7)33.6 (28.0–40.2)33.3 (28.2–40.2)0.454
Protein (E%)14.3 (12.7–16.3)14.5 (12.8–16.4)14.5 (12.8–16.4)14.8 (12.9–16.7)0.001
Alcohol (E%)02.9 (01.1–06.5)02.7 (01.0–05.5)02.6 (00.9–05.4)02.5 (00.8–05.7)0.000
Carbohydrate (E%)47.1 (40.7–53.1)46.7 (40.8–52.4)46.9 (40.4–52.4)46.2 (39.9–51.9)0.986
Carbohydrate (g/day)275 (220–354)270 (209–348)271 (214–339)270 (214–337)0.000
Sucrose (g/day)31.7 (18.9–48.6)31.4 (18.9–48.9)30.6 (19.1–48.3)29.3 (18.3–48.0)0.044
Glucose (g/day)10.6 (5.9–19.2)9.6 (5.7–18.1)9.3 (5.5–17.4)9.2 (5.3–17.3)0.063
Fructose (g/day)9.2 (5.0–18.3)8.6 (4.7–17.2)8.4 (4.7–16.5)8.1 (4.4–16.3)0.065
Lactose (g/day)11.3 (5.3–22.3)11.5 (5.1–23.1)11.9 (5.7–23.3)12.1 (5.6–25.6)0.004
  • Data are medians and interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * P values for trend are analyzed in regression models with HOMA-IR as the continuous explanatory variable and sex as the categorical explanatory variable.

  • Percentages are based on individuals where both fasting and 2-h plasma glucose values were available.