Table 2—

Associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and HOMA-IR in 5,675 nondiabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort

Dependent variable
HOMA ratio* (95% CI)PHOMA ratio (95% CI)P
Explanatory variables
    Daily glycemic index (per 10 units)1.02 (0.99–1.04)0.2301.01 (0.99–1.03)0.315
    Daily glycemic load (per 30 units)0.99 (0.99–1.00)0.0210.99 (0.99–1.00)0.047
    Carbohydrate (per 3 E%)1.00 (0.99–1.00)0.0580.99 (0.99–1.00)0.011
    Sucrose (per 1 E%)1.00 (0.98–1.00)0.1471.00 (1.00–1.00)0.444
    Glucose (per 1 E%)0.99 (0.98–1.00)0.0200.98 (0.97–0.99)0.001
    Fructose (per 1 E%)0.99 (0.98–1.00)0.0200.98 (0.97–0.99)0.002
    Lactose (per 1 E%)1.02 (1.01–1.03)0.0001.02 (1.01–1.02)0.000
    Dietary fiber (per 10 g/day)0.97 (0.96–0.99)0.0000.97 (0.96–0.99)0.001
    Fruit and vegetables (per 100 g/day)0.99 (0.98–0.99)0.0000.99 (0.98–0.99)0.000
  • *

    * Univariate analyses.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. Values >1 indicate a positive association, and values <1 indicate an inverse association.