Table 3

Crude and adjusted HRs for patients with a diabetes monotherapy other than metformin versus patients with metformin as monotherapy (outcome: cancer of all sites)

A: Sulfonylurea (monotherapy)
B: Metformin (monotherapy)A: Insulin (monotherapy)
B: Metformin (monotherapy)A: Other medication (monotherapy)
B: Metformin (monotherapy)
Person-years (mean/median/first quartile/third quartile)2.50/1.97/0.91/3.632.47/1.94/0.89/3.572.42/1.88/0.86/3.39
Cases (therapy A)995035
Sum of person-years (therapy A)a3,233.41,788.91,652.4
Crude rate per person-year (therapy A)0.03060.02800.0212
Cases (therapy B)492492492
Sum of person-years (therapy B)a22,133.622,133.622,133.6
Crude rate per person-year (therapy B)0.02220.02220.0222
Crude rate ratio1.381.260.95
HR (crude) (95% CI)1.38 (1.11–1.71)1.26 (0.94–1.69)0.96 (0.68–1.35)
HR (model 2)1.10 (0.88–1.38)1.12 (0.83–1.50)0.94 (0.66–1.33)
HR (model 3)1.10 (0.88–1.38)1.13 (0.84–1.51)0.94 (0.66–1.33)
HR (model 4)1.11 (0.88–1.39)1.17 (0.86–1.57)0.95 (0.67–1.34)
HR (model 5)1.09 (0.87–1.36)1.14 (0.85–1.55)0.94 (0.67–1.33)
  • Model 2, adjusted for age, sex, health insurance (private or statutory), and practice region (Western or Eastern Germany); model 3, model 2 + time until prescription of first therapy; model 4, model 3 + obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Charlson index; model 5, model 4 + use of antihypertensives, use of lipid-lowering agents, use of antithrombotic agents, vaccination (ATC J07), and prevalence of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, or nephropathy).

  • aPerson-years refer to the period from 1 year after prescription of the respective medication until cancer incidence or censoring.