Table 2—

Effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on outcome measures for subjects with at least one postbaseline measurement

PioglitazoneRosiglitazoneP value
n363356
Triglyceride (mg/dl)
    Baseline257.8 ± 8.2235.3 ± 6.6
    Change from baseline−51.9 ± 7.8*13.1 ± 7.8<0.001
    Percent change from baseline−12.0 ± 3.0*14.9 ± 3.1*<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
    Baseline38.8 ± 0.539.8 ± 0.6
    Change from baseline5.2 ± 0.5*2.4 ± 0.5*<0.001
    Percent change from Baseline14.9 ± 1.2*7.8 ± 1.2*<0.001
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
    Baseline154.8 ± 1.6153.6 ± 1.6
    Change from baseline3.6 ± 1.925.7 ± 2.0*<0.001
    Percent change from baseline3.8 ± 1.3*18.6 ± 1.3*<0.001
LDL cholesterol† (mg/dl)
    Baseline107.1 ± 1.3109.1 ± 1.4
    Change from baseline12.3 ± 1.6*21.3 ± 1.6*<0.001
    Percent change from baseline15.7 ± 1.9*23.3 ± 1.9*0.002
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
    Baseline193.6 ± 1.6193.4 ± 1.8
    Change from baseline8.8 ± 1.9*28.2 ± 1.9*<0.001
    Percent change from baseline5.7 ± 1.0*15.9 ± 1.0*<0.001
Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio
    Baseline5.3 ± 0.15.1 ± 0.1
    Change from baseline−0.3 ± 0.1*0.7 ± 0.1*<0.001
Apolipoprotein B (g/l)
    Baseline1.05 ± 0.011.04 ± 0.01
    Change from baseline0.00 ± 0.010.11 ± 0.01*<0.001
Free fatty acid (mEq/l)
    Baseline0.64 ± 0.010.62 ± 0.02
    Change from baseline−0.11 ± 0.02*−0.12 ± 0.02*0.681
A1C (%)
    Baseline7.6 ± 0.17.5 ± 0.1
    Change from baseline−0.7 ± 0.1*−0.6 ± 0.1*0.129
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)
    Baseline180.6 ± 3.1176.5 ± 3.0
    Change from baseline−33.2 ± 2.2*−36.6 ± 2.2*0.233
Fasting insulin (μU/ml)
    Baseline19.7 ± 1.017.9 ± 0.8
    Change from baseline−4.5 ± 0.5*−4.6 ± 0.5*0.918
Fasting C-peptide (ng/ml)
    Baseline3.9 ± 0.13.7 ± 0.1
    Change from baseline−0.7 ± 0.1*−0.7 ± 0.1*0.652
HOMA of insulin resistance
    Baseline8.2 ± 0.37.8 ± 0.4
    Change from baseline−2.8 ± 0.2*−3.0 ± 0.2*0.449
HOMA β-cells
    Baseline83.8 ± 6.671.8 ± 3.7
    Change from baseline8.0 ± 3.5*6.7 ± 3.60.780
PAI-1 (ng/ml)
    Baseline62.8 ± 2.360.0 ± 2.3
    Change from baseline−10.4 ± 2.0*−11.7 ± 2.0*0.623
C-reactive protein (mg/l)
    Baseline7.0 ± 0.66.6 ± 0.4
    Change from baseline−2.0 ± 0.3*−2.5 ± 0.3*0.288
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * P ≤ 0.05 vs. baseline; change from baseline and percent change from baseline are least-square means adjusted for baseline level.

  • LDL cholesterol levels were directly measured (not calculated). HOMA, homeostasis model assessment.