Table 1—

Characteristics of the study population

CSIIMDI
Subjects randomized (n)5354
Age (years)66.6 ± 5.966.2 ± 4.5
Sex (male)38 (72)24 (44)
Race
    Caucasian43 (81)49 (91)
    Black4 (8)2 (4)
    Hispanic4 (8)2 (4)
    Other2 (4)1 (2)
Duration of diabetes (years)16.9 ± 9.015.4 ± 8.9
Prior diabetes treatment
    Insulin only30 (57)33 (61)
    Insulin and oral agent(s)23 (43)21 (39)
    Prior insulin treatment (years)8.1 ± 8.38.2 ± 7.7
History of diabetes complications*
    Retinopathy20 (42)19 (36)
    Nephropathy9 (17)7 (13)
    Neuropathy37 (72)32 (59)
History of cardiovascular complications*
    Hypertension38 (72)41 (76)
    Dyslipidemia31 (58)41 (76)
    Cigarette smoking (current)2 (4)3 (6)
    Angina/myocardial infarction/heart failure24 (45)17 (32)
BMI (kg/m2)32.5 ± 5.831.8 ± 5.8
A1C (%)8.4 ± 1.18.1 ± 1.2
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *

    * Self-reported.