Table 2—

Influence of diabetes onset age and prior intellectual ability on cognitive and information processing abilities

Diabetes onset age
Effect of prior intellectual ability
Early-onset groupLater-onset groupEffectEarly-onset group (Z score)Later-onset group (Z score)
Performance IQ (WAIS-R scaled scores)37.3 (32.1–41.6)41.7 (39.7–45.8)P = 0.03, Eta2 = 0.09−0.560.13P < 0.0001, Eta2 = 0.37
    Picture completion8.3 (6.7–10.0)9.3 (8.3–10.3)P = 0.20, Eta2 = 0.03−0.380.14P < 0.0001, Eta2 = 0.36
    Block design9.5 (7.9–11.0)11.7 (10.8–12.7)P = 0.03, Eta2 = 0.08−0.660.14P < 0.0001, Eta2 = 0.39
    Object assembly9.8 (7.9–11.7)9.4 (8.3–10.5)P = 0.99, Eta2 < 0.01−0.04−0.04P = 0.003, Eta2 = 0.14
    Digit symbol substitution9.7 (8.1–11.3)11.3 (10.3–12.3)P = 0.19, Eta2 = 0.03−0.440.14P = 0.001, Eta2 = 0.16
Frontal and executive functions (verbal fluency score)43.6 (34.4–52.7)44.6 (38.7–50.4)P = 0.83, Eta2 = < 0.01−0.070.01P = 0.02, Eta2 = 0.10
Information processing ability
    Inspection time (ms)51 (38–63)53 (45–61)P = 0.61, Eta2 < 0.010.150.04P = 0.54, Eta2 = 0.01
    Simple reaction time (ms)332 (300–364)273 (253–293)P = 0.012, Eta2 = 0.12−0.720.26P = 0.33, Eta2 = 0.02
    Four-choice reaction time (ms)366 (335–396)305 (285–325)P = 0.006, Eta2 = 0.13−0.840.31P = 0.09, Eta2 = 0.05
Attention and concentration ability (PASAT 2s series errors)23.2 (15.3–31.1)24.5 (19.4–21.5)P = 0.41, Eta2 = 0.010.10−0.01P = 0.006, Eta2 = 0.13
  • Data are means (95% CI). Prior intellectual ability determined by NART.