Table 2

Mixed models showing the rate of change in fasting glucose (A), 2-h glucose (B), Matsuda index (C), and ISSI-2 (D) in each of the four gestational glucose tolerance groups over the duration of follow-up, adjusted for model 1, model 2, and model 3

Normal GCT NGT (reference)Abnormal GCT NGTGIGTGDM
EstimateP valueEstimateP valueEstimateP valueEstimateP value
A: Fasting glucose
 Model 1a0.00140.900.0470<0.0010.0470<0.001
 Model 2b0.00050.960.0500<0.0010.0440<0.001
 Model 3c−0.00400.780.00400.0030.03700.006
B: 2-h glucose
 Model 10.10200.0010.1380<0.0010.2310<0.001
 Model 20.11000.0020.1370<0.0010.2320<0.001
 Model 30.05700.040.07400.020.1270<0.001
C: Matsuda index
 Model 1−0.16700.007−0.18300.009−0.2960<0.001
 Model 2−0.17900.007−0.17500.02−0.3100<0.001
 Model 3−0.15300.02−0.14200.05−0.2590<0.001
D: ISSI-2
 Model 1−0.07000.14−0.2320<0.001−0.2960<0.001
 Model 2−0.06700.22−0.2180<0.001−0.2840<0.001
 Model 3−0.00400.94−0.13900.02−0.1640<0.001
  • Boldface indicates P < 0.05.

  • aModel 1: age + ethnicity + family history of diabetes + time-dependent BMI + months postpartum.

  • bModel 2: model 1 + duration of breastfeeding + physical activity at 1 year and 3 years.

  • cModel 3: model 2 + development of diabetes at either 3 months or 1 year.