Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of study subjects, grouped by metabolic syndrome status

TotalWHO-defined metabolic syndrome
NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome
WithoutWithPWithoutWithP
n
    Men771376 (48.8)395 (51.2)424 (55.0)347 (45.0)
    Women653310 (47.4)343 (52.6)405 (62.0)248 (38.0)
Age (years)
    Men58.2 ± 7.457.4 ± 7.658.9 ± 7.20.0158.0 ± 7.658.4 ± 7.20.50
    Women58.7 ± 7.457.9 ± 7.759.5 ± 7.00.0158.4 ± 7.459.4 ± 7.20.11
Diabetes duration (years)
    Men10.9 ± 7.611.0 ± 7.610.9 ± 7.60.6611.5 ± 7.810.2 ± 7.40.01
    Women10.1 ± 6.710.7 ± 7.39.5 ± 6.00.1010.6 ± 7.09.4 ± 6.00.07
BMI (kg/m2)
    Men22.9 ± 2.622.0 ± 2.423.7 ± 2.6<0.0121.8 ± 2.324.2 ± 2.4<0.01
    Women23.4 ± 3.322.3 ± 3.024.3 ± 3.3<0.0122.6 ± 3.124.6 ± 3.3<0.01
Waist circumference (cm)
    Men82.3 ± 7.779.0 ± 7.185.3 ± 7.0<0.0178.4 ± 6.487.0 ± 6.5<0.01
    Women76.5 ± 9.872.4 ± 8.380.1 ± 9.7<0.0174.1 ± 8.680.4 ± 10.4<0.01
Waist-to-hip ratio
    Men0.89 ± 0.070.86 ± 0.050.92 ± 0.06<0.010.87 ± 0.060.92 ± 0.06<0.01
    Women0.83 ± 0.080.80 ± 0.060.86 ± 0.07<0.010.82 ± 0.070.86 ± 0.08<0.01
Blood pressure (mmHg)
    Men132 ± 16/78 ± 10124 ± 13/74 ± 9139 ± 15/81 ± 10<0.01127 ± 16/75 ± 9137 ± 15/81 ± 9<0.01
    Women132 ± 17/76 ± 10124 ± 13/73 ± 9139 ± 16/79 ± 11<0.01128 ± 17/74 ± 10138 ± 14/80 ± 10<0.01
HbA1c (%)
    Men7.61 ± 1.367.53 ± 1.427.67 ± 1.300.057.54 ± 1.367.68 ± 1.360.18
    Women8.05 ± 1.458.07 ± 1.518.04 ± 1.400.798.09 ± 1.477.99 ± 1.420.41
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)*
    Men8.3 (7.2–10.0)8.2 (7.0–9.7)8.6 (7.4–10.4)<0.018.2 (7.1–9.8)8.6 (7.4–10.3)0.02
    Women8.6 (7.3–10.2)8.6 (7.2–10.2)8.6 (7.3–10.2)0.748.6 (7.2–10.3)8.5 (7.4–9.9)0.77
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)
    Men6.2 (0.5–1.9)5.4 (0.5–1.9)7.2 (0.5–1.9)<0.015.2 (0.5–1.9)7.7 (0.5–1.9)<0.01
    Women7.1 (0.5–1.9)5.9 (0.5–1.9)8.3 (0.6–1.8)<0.016.2 (0.5–1.9)8.7 (0.5–1.9)<0.01
HOMA-IR
    Men3.1 ± 3.12.6 ± 2.63.6 ± 3.4<0.012.4 ± 2.13.9 ± 3.8<0.01
    Women3.3 ± 2.62.8 ± 2.23.8 ± 2.8<0.012.9 ± 2.14.1 ± 3.1<0.01
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Men5.01 ± 0.904.93 ± 0.845.09 ± 0.940.014.97 ± 0.825.07 ± 0.980.16
    Women5.44 ± 0.855.38 ± 0.845.50 ± 0.860.055.41 ± 0.835.50 ± 0.890.28
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Men1.34 ± 0.391.42 ± 0.391.27 ± 0.38<0.011.48 ± 0.381.18 ± 0.34<0.01
    Women1.47 ± 0.441.57 ± 0.451.37 ± 0.41<0.011.65 ± 0.431.17 ± 0.26<0.01
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)
    Men1.2 (0.6–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.5)1.5 (0.6–1.6)<0.011.0 (0.7–1.5)1.6 (0.6–1.6)<0.01
    Women1.1 (0.6–1.7)0.9 (0.6–1.6)1.4 (0.6–1.6)<0.019 (0.7–1.5)1.6 (0.6–1.6)<0.01
Current smoker (%; men/women)43.9/8.746.6/8.141.3/9.20.08/0.3844.7/7.142.9/11.30.33/0.049
Excessive alcohol intake (%; men/women)§12.4/0.28.2/0.016.4/0.3<0.01/0.517.7/0.318.4/0.0<0.01/0.62
OHA use (without insulin) (%; men/women)72/7772/7673/780.38/0.3372/7572/790.50/0.20
Insulin use (with or without OHA) (%; men/women)16/2018/2415/160.16/0.0120/2211/15<0.01/0.02
Medication for hypertension (%; men/women)22/2912/1732/40<0.01/<0.0116/2330/40<0.01/<0.01
Medication for hyperlipidemia (%; men/women)15/3511/3019/39<0.01/<0.0110/3221/40<0.01/0.02
  • Data are n (%), means ± SD,

  • *

    * median (interquartile range), or

  • geometric means (1 SD).

  • Patients with insulin therapy were excluded.

  • §

    § Excessive alcohol intake was defined as more than three drinks (38 g ethanol) per day. OHA, oral hypoglycemic agent.