Table 3—

Patient prevalence at baseline and hazard ratios for coronary heart disease, stroke, or both in Japanese study subjects grouped by metabolic syndrome status

Prevalence at baseline
Hazard ratios for CHD
Hazard ratios for stroke
Hazard ratios for CHD and/or stroke
MenWomenMenWomenMenWomenMenWomen
Criteria of individual components
    1a. BMI >30 or WHR >0.90 (men) or >0.85 (women)39.437.51.3 (0.7–2.5)1.2 (0.5–3.0)1.3 (0.7–2.6)1.1 (0.5–2.3)1.4 (0.8–2.2)1.2 (0.6–2.1)
    1b. Waist circumference ≥85cm (men) or ≥90 cm (women)36.79.61.7 (0.9–3.0)1.0 (0.2–4.4)0.90 (0.4–1.9)1.1 (0.3–3.7)1.3 (0.8–2.1)1.1 (0.4–2.8)
    2a. SBP ≥140 or DBP ≥90 mmHg38.938.90.8 (0.4–1.6)1.0 (0.4–2.6)2.1 (1.1–4.3)2.4 (1.1–5.5)1.3 (0.8–2.1)1.8 (1.0–3.2)
    2b. SBP ≥130 or DBP ≥85 mmHg60.762.20.9 (0.5–1.6)0.9 (0.4–2.2)1.4 (0.7–2.9)1.8 (0.7–4.5)1.1 (0.6–1.7)1.2 (0.7–2.4)
    3. Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl24.821.02.9 (1.6–5.3)1.7 (0.6–4.4)1.1 (0.5–2.4)0.7 (0.2–1.9)2.0 (1.2–3.2)1.1 (0.5–2.2)
    4. HDL cholesterol ≤40 mg/dl19.336.31.8 (0.9–3.5)1.5 (0.6–3.6)1.0 (0.4–2.5)1.3 (0.6–2.9)1.6 (0.9–2.6)1.3 (0.7–2.4)
    5. Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl or HDL cholesterol <35 mg/dl28.527.02.8 (1.6–5.2)1.8 (0.7–4.5)0.9 (0.4–1.9)1.6 (0.7–3.5)1.8 (1.1–2.9)1.6 (0.9–2.9)
    6. Urinary albumin excretion >30 μg/g creatinine51.257.71.2 (0.6–2.3)2.9 (0.9–8.7)1.8 (0.9–3.8)1.1 (0.5–2.4)1.4 (0.9–2.3)1.6 (0.8–3.0)
    7. LDL cholesterol ≥120 mg/dl45.165.22.1 (1.1–3.9)1.2 (0.5–3.2)0.9 (0.5–1.8)0.6 (0.3–1.3)1.4 (0.9–2.3)0.8 (0.4–1.4)
    8. Current smoker43.98.71.4 (0.7–2.5)0.6 (0.1–4.3)0.9 (0.4–1.8)2.5 (0.8–7.3)1.2 (0.7–1.9)1.6 (0.6–4.1)
    9. Alcohol intake >3 drinks/day*12.40.20.7 (0.3–2.1)0.0 (0.0–0.0)1.0 (0.4–2.8)0.0 (0.0–0.0)0.9 (0.4–1.8)0.0 (0.0–0.0)
Number of components comprising WHO-MetS other than diabetes (i.e., among 1a, 2a, 5, and 6)
    018.616.41.001.001.001.001.001.00
    ≥1 (vs. <1)81.583.61.7 (0.7–4.5)3.9 (0.5–28.4)1.0 (0.4–2.5)2.3 (0.5–9.7)1.2 (0.7–2.4)2.8 (0.9–9.0)
    ≥2 (vs. <2; i.e., WHO-MetS)51.252.51.3 (0.7–2.4)2.8 (1.0–7.9)2.0 (0.9–4.1)3.7 (1.4–9.9)1.6 (1.0–2.6)3.2 (1.6–6.5)
    ≥3 (vs. <3)21.820.71.8 (0.9–3.5)1.3 (0.5–3.7)2.1 (1.0–4.4)1.1 (0.4–2.7)1.9 (1.2–3.2)1.2 (0.6–2.4)
Number of components comprising NCEP-MetS other than diabetes (i.e. among 1b, 2b, 3, and 4)
    020.121.61.001.001.001.001.001.00
    ≥1 (vs. <1)79.978.41.9 (0.7–4.9)1.6 (0.4–5.6)1.0 (0.4–2.2)6.4 (0.9–46.7)1.3 (0.7–2.4)2.7 (0.9–7.7)
    ≥2 (vs. <2; i.e., NCEP-MetS)45.038.01.9 (1.0–3.6)1.7 (0.7–4.0)1.4 (0.7–2.8)1.3 (0.6–2.8)1.8 (1.1–2.8)1.4 (0.8–2.5)
    ≥3 (vs. <3)14.511.52.5 (1.3–4.9)0.9 (0.2–3.7)0.9 (0.3–2.4)0.3 (0.0–2.2)1.8 (1.0–3.2)0.5 (0.2–1.7)
  • Data are percent or hazard ratios (95% CIs) and are grouped according to individual and combined cardiovascular risk factors mostly comprising the metabolic syndrome as defined by the World Health Organization or the National Cholesterol Education Program.

  • *

    * Equivalent to 38 g ethanol/day. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.