Table 1—

Age- and sex-adjusted metabolic factors by diabetes status among Gujarati Indians in Sandwell (U.K.) compared with contemporaries living in Navsari (India)

No diabetes
No diabetes (P)*Diabetes
NavsariSandwellNavsariSandwell
n1841684037
BMI (kg/m2)20.8 (20.3–21.3)26.1 (25.6–26.7)<0.00122.1 (20.8–23.4)26.8 (25.1–28.4)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.82 (0.81–0.83)0.865 (0.85–0.88)<0.0010.85 (0.83–0.88)0.88 (0.85–0.91)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.95 (4.86–5.03)4.88 (4.82–4.95)0.1948.10 (6.69–9.50)9.52 (8.48–0.62)
2-h glucose (mmol/l)5.64 (5.46–5.82)5.08 (4.90–5.27)<0.001
Fasting NEFA (mmol/l)A0.33 (0.29–0.37)0.41 (0.39–0.45)<0.0010.40 (0.27–0.53)0.55 (0.48–0.62)
30-min NEFA (mmol/l)B0.29 (0.26–0.32)0.45 (0.42–0.49)<0.001
2-h NEFA (mmol/l)0.12 (0.11–0.13)0.23 (0.20–0.26)<0.001
NEFA-S (mmol/l) (A − B)0.01 (0–0.06)0.04 (0.01–0.08)0.785
Fasting insulin (units/l)6.8 (6.2–7.5)10.2 (9.3–11.2)<0.00110.3 (8.2–12.7)12.5 (10.2–15.5)
30-min insulin (units/l)44.7 (39.9–50.0)56.7 (50.9–63.2)<0.001
2-h insulin (units/l)33.7 (29.8–38.2)48.7 (43.0–55.2)<0.001
HOMA-β (%)108 (93–117)156 (142–177)<0.00154.9 (39.0–77.2)54.1 (39.2–74.7)
HOMA-S (0–1)0.68 (0.61–0.75)0.44 (0.39–0.49)<0.0010.28 (0.21–0.37)0.22 (0.17–0.28)
  • Data are age-adjusted mean (95% CI) and †geometric mean (95% CI). Postchallenge metabolic measures were available for subjects without reported diabetes.

  • *

    * P for rural vs. migrant;

  • includes known and newly detected.