Table 1—

Comparison of clinical and echocardiographic characteristics in patients with diabetes and control subjects

Diabetic patientsControl subjectsP
n17056
Clinical features
    Age (years)56 ± 1053 ± 10NS
    Sex (male)9129NS
    BMI (kg/m2)31 ± 630 ± 7NS
    Heart rate (bpm)83 ± 1378 ± 170.016
    Peak heart rate (bpm)153 ± 18162 ± 230.008
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133 ± 16130 ± 16NS
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82 ± 980 ± 12NS
    Peak systolic blood pressure (mmHg)191 ± 27195 ± 20NS
    Peak diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)88 ± 1087 ± 13NS
    Exercise capacity (METS)7.9 ± 2.810.9 ± 4.6<0.001
    HRR (beats/min)26 ± 932 ± 120.002
Blood biochemistry
    A1C (%)7.9 ± 1.65.6 ± 0.4<0.001
    Glucose (mmol/l)8.9 ± 3.74.8 ± 0.5<0.001
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.8 ± 1.05.6 ± 0.9<0.001
    LDL choleserol (mmol/l)2.7 ± 1.03.4 ± 0.7<0.001
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.41.6 ± 0.60.006
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.9 ± 1.31.4 ± 0.70.02
    Creatinine (μmol/l)0.08 ± 0.030.09 ± 0.02NS
    Urea (mmol/l)6.2 ± 2.36.1 ± 1.7NS
M-mode echocardiography
    LV end-diastolic dimension (cm)4.5 ± 0.54.8 ± 0.50.008
    Intraventricular septum diastolic dimension (cm)1.1 ± 0.21.1 ± 0.2NS
    Posterior wall diastolic dimension (cm)1.0 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.2NS
    Fractional shortening (%)36 ± 636 ± 3NS
Two-dimensional echocardiography
    LV end-diastolic volume (ml)73 ± 2379 ± 22NS
    LV end-systolic volume (ml)28 ± 1129 ± 10NS
    LV ejection fraction (%)62 ± 664 ± 5NS
    LV mass index (g/m2)97 ± 3693 ± 22NS
Doppler
    Mitral early peak velocity (m/s)0.8 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.1<0.001
    Mitral late peak velocity (m/s)0.8 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.2<0.001
    Early-to-late peak diastolic transmitral flow velocity ratio1.0 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.4NS
    Mitral valve deceleration time (ms)240 ± 49234 ± 38NS
    Isovolumic relaxation time (ms)104 ± 17109 ± 16NS
Tissue characteristics
    Mean basal myocardial early diastolic velocity (cm/s)5.4 ± 1.97.0 ± 2.0<0.001
    Strain rate (s-1)1.3 ± 0.21.6 ± 0.3<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD. NS, no significant difference.