Table 2—

Significant differences in clinical and echocardiographic characteristics between patients with and without abnormal exercise capacity

Normal exercise capacityAbnormal exercise capacityP
n52118
Clinical features
    Age (years)55 ± 956 ± 11NS
    Sex (male)34 (65)57 (48)0.04
    BMI (kg/m2)29 ± 532 ± 60.002
    Heart rate (beats/min)82 ± 1384 ± 14NS
    Peak heart rate (beats/min)161 ± 15150 ± 18<0.001
    Exercise capacity (mets)10.8 ± 2.16.6 ± 2.1<0.001
    HRR (beats/min)29 ± 825 ± 100.004
Clinical history
    Diabetes duration (years)9 ± 911 ± 9NS
    Hypertension21 (40)71 (60)0.023
    Hypercholesterolemia history22 (42)78 (66)0.006
Blood biochemistry
    A1C (%)7.4 ± 1.28.1 ± 1.80.001
    Glucose (mmol/l)7.9 ± 2.79.4 ± 4.00.008
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.6 ± 1.12.0 ± 1.30.043
Treatment
    Insulin15 (29)46 (39)NS
    Metformin27 (52)77 (65)NS
    Sulphonylureas12 (23)43 (36)NS
    ACE inhibitors15 (29)53 (45)NS
    Calcium blockers5 (10)16 (14)NS
    β-Blockers4 (8)11 (9)NS
    Nitrates02 (2)NS
    Lipid-lowering drugs16 (31)67 (57)0.007
Doppler
    Mitral early peak velocity (m/s)0.7 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.20.048
    Mitral late peak velocity (m/s)0.7 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.2<0.001
    Early-to-late peak diastolic transmitral flow velocity ratio1.1 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.3NS
    Mitral valve deceleration time (ms)242 ± 51239 ± 48NS
    Isovolumic relaxation time (ms)107 ± 16103 ± 17NS
Tissue characteristics
    Mean basal myocardial early diastolic velocity (cm/s)6.3 ± 2.05.1 ± 1.7<0.001
    Strain rate (s-1)1.3 ± 0.21.2 ± 0.2NS
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). No differences were observed for age, resting heart rate, resting or exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure, clinical evidence of microvascular disease, smoking, duration of diabetes, renal function, cholesterol or its fractions, diabetic therapy (insulin, oral agents), cardiovascular medications other than statins, LV dimensions, mass, volume, or ejection fraction. NS, no significant difference.