Table 3—

Comparison of clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of diabetic patients with and without abnormal HRR

Normal HRRAbnormal HRRP
n13634
Clinical features
    Age (years)55 ± 1061 ± 90.001
    BMI (kg/m2)31 ± 534 ± 70.005
    Heart rate (bpm)82 ± 1387 ± 150.044
    Peak heart rate (bpm)156 ± 17142 ± 18<0.001
    Exercise capacity (METS)8.4 ± 2.85.9 ± 2.0<0.001
    HRR (beats/min)30 ± 713 ± 4<0.001
Clinical history
    Hypertension63 (46)29 (85)<0.001
    Hypercholesterolemia history75 (55)25 (74)NS
    Current smoking56 (41)12 (35)NS
    Diabetes duration (years)9 ± 914 ± 90.015
    Peripheral vascular disease4 (3)5 (15)0.007
    Renal impairment17 (13)10 (29)0.02
    Retinopathy20 (15)10 (29)0.046
Blood biochemistry
    A1C (%)7.7 ± 1.58.7 ± 1.80.001
    Glucose (mmol/l)8.8 ± 3.59.4 ± 4.5NS
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.8 ± 1.22.5 ± 1.40.005
    Creatinine (μmol/l)0.08 ± 0.040.08 ± 0.02NS
    Urea (mmol/l)6.2 ± 2.06.7 ± 3.1NS
Treatment
    Insulin44 (32)17 (50)NS
    Metformin79 (58)25 (74)NS
    Sulphonylureas43 (32)12 (35)NS
    ACE inhibitors48 (35)20 (59)0.021
    Calcium blockers14 (10)7 (21)NS
    β-Blockers9 (7)6 (18)NS
    Nitrates2 (1)0NS
    Lipid-lowering drugs62 (46)21 (62)NS
Doppler
    Mitral early peak velocity (m/s)0.8 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.2NS
    Mitral late peak velocity (m/s)0.8 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.2NS
    Early-to-late peak diastolic transmitral flow velocity ratio1.1 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.2NS
    Mitral valve deceleration time (ms)235 ± 50258 ± 420.016
    Isovolumic relaxation time (ms)106 ± 17100 ± 18NS
Tissue characteristics
    Mean basal myocardial early diastolic velocity (cm/s)5.7 ± 1.94.6 ± 1.3<0.001
    Strain rate (s-1)1.3 ± 0.21.2 ± 0.2NS
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). No differences were observed for sex, resting or exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and smoking, cholesterol or its fractions, diabetic therapy (insulin, oral agents), cardiovascular medications other than ACE inhibitors, LV dimensions, mass, volume, or ejection fraction. NS, no significant difference.