Table 2—

Characteristics of patients with and without retinopathy and neuropathy

With retinopathyWithout retinopathyPOR (95% CI)With neuropathyWithout neuropathyPOR (95% CI)
n315277255337
Sex (M/F)179/136145/132NS163/92161/176<0.00011.9 (1.4–2.7)
Age (years)45 ± 1237 ± 11<0.000146 ± 1238 ± 11<0.0001
Duration diabetes (years)25 ± 1012 ± 8<0.000123 ± 1116 ± 9<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)25.8 ± 4.124.7 ± 4.20.00125.8 ± 4.324.9 ± 4.20.047
Insulin dose (units/kg)0.71 ± 0.240.71 ± 0.25NS0.70 ± 0.250.71 ± 0.24NS
A1C (%)8.0 ± 1.17.7 ± 1.10.0018.1 ± 1.27.7 ± 1.1<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)199 ± 35188 ± 360.001198 ± 35191 ± 370.023
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)128 ± 36115 ± 36<0.0001128 ± 36117 ± 37<0.0001
LDL (mg/dl)121 ± 36111 ± 360.001119 ± 33114 ± 390.08 (NS)
HDL (mg/dl)62 ± 1961 ± 18NS61 ± 1962 ± 18NS
Triglycerides (mg/dl)102 ± 6599 ± 74NS105 ± 7197 ± 66NS
Leptin (ng/ml) (n = 130)12.2 ± 9.910.9 ± 9.7NS10.5 ± 10.312.3 ± 9.3NS
Adiponectin (μg/ml) (n = 130)17.3 ± 7.515.3 ± 5.90.12 (NS)17.3 ± 7.215.7 ± 6.6NS
Neuropathy182 (58)73 (26)<0.00013.8 (2.7–5.4)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated.