Table 2

RR and 95% CI evaluating the association of a 1-unit increase in HbA1c with CAC progression over 5 years among individuals without diabetes in the CARDIA study

ModelRR (95% CI)
Incident CAC* (>0 Agatston units), n = 1,693
 Model 11.55 (1.12, 2.14)
 Model 21.45 (1.02, 2.06)
 Model 31.05 (0.74, 1.49)
Any CAC progression (>10 Agatston units), n = 2,076
 Model 11.57 (1.24, 1.99)
 Model 21.51 (1.16, 1.96)
 Model 31.13 (0.87, 1.47)
 Model 41.09 (0.87, 1.37)
Advanced CAC progression (>100 Agatston units), n = 2,076
 Model 12.69 (1.76, 4.13)
 Model 22.42 (1.47, 3.99)
 Model 31.78 (1.08, 2.95)
 Model 41.75 (1.09, 2.83)
  • One-unit increase in HbA1c = 1% (10.9 mmol/mol). Model 1, unadjusted; model 2, adjusted for age, race, sex, education, and study field center; model 3, adjusted for variables in model 2 plus SBP, antihypertensive medication use (yes/no), current smoking status (yes/no), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and BMI; model 4, adjusted for variables in model 3 plus baseline CAC.

  • *Evaluated only among individuals without CAC at the year 20 examination.