Table 1—

Antenatal maternal, fetal, and neonatal parameters of GDM pregnancies in 324 children with BMI < or ≥90th percentile at follow-up examination

Total cohort (n = 324)BMI <90th percentile at follow-up (n = 232)BMI ≥90th percentile at follow-up (n = 92)χ2;/t test P value
Maternal
    History of GDM43 (13.3)31 (13.4)12 (13.0)0.939
    History of macrosomia (>4,000 g)41 (12.7)27 (11.6)14 (15.2)0.382
    Parity2.0 ± 1.11.9 ± 1.12.0 ± 1.20.578
    Age at delivery (years)30.8 ± 5.531.0 ± 5.630.3 ± 5.40.252
    Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)27.1 ± 5.626.4 ± 5.328.8 ± 6.20.003
    Weight gain during pregnancy (kg)11.7 ± 5.711.6 ± 5.212.0 ± 6.70.589
Diabetes-related parameters
    Gestational age at diagnosis (weeks)26.5 ± 6.126.5 ± 5.926.5 ± 6.80.929
    OGTT (mg/dl)
        Fasting91.4 ± 20.190.7 ± 19.993.3 ± 20.80.308
        1 h195.4 ± 33.8194.2 ± 33.8198.3 ± 33.90.345
        2 h145.8 ± 38.1145.5 ± 37.5146.6 ± 39.90.832
    Mean fasting glucose, third trimester78.3 ± 12.277.9 ± 11.979.2 ± 13.00.429
    Mean 2-h postprandial, third trimester104.0 ± 17.0102.6 ± 16.7107.2 ± 17.40.043
    A1C at diagnosis (%)5.9 ± 1.35.8 ± 1.46.1 ± 1.20.209
    Insulin use27 (8.8)19 (8.4)8 (9.1)0.855
Fetal and neonatal
    Fetal AC at diagnosis ≥90th percentile53 (21.5)35 (19.7)18 (26.5)0.245
    Fetal AC third trimester ≥90th percentile38 (15.4)22 (12.7)16 (21.6)0.076
    Gestational age at delivery (weeks)39.2 ± 1.539.3 ± 1.539.0 ± 1.60.121
    Sex (male)175 (54.0)125 (53.9)50 (54.3)0.939
    Birth weight ≥90th percentile55 (17.0)33 (14.2)22 (23.9)0.036
    Neonatal BMI ≥90th percentile100 (30.9)63 (27.2)37 (40.2)0.022
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD. AC, abdominal circumference.