Table 3—

Fundus severity scores and retinopathy risk factors by ethnic group

Non- Hispanic whiteHispanicAfrican AmericanOtherAll patientsP value*
Patients (n)779236240281283NS
Fundus severity (% >40)2236291826<0.05
Age (years)6158585960<0.05
Duration of diabetes (years)1111111211NS
Smoking (years)2721242726<0.05
A1C (%)9.29.79.89.19.4<0.05
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)195191179193191<0.05
Hypertension (%)7171788672NS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130130136130131<0.05
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)7478807476<0.05
UACR (mg/g)101106131194109NS
Cardiac revascularization (%)2612122521<0.05
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)186189188192187NS
Triglycerides (mg/dl)239204151190215<0.05
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)107110118109110<0.05
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)3839434239<0.05
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)370374368367370NS
PAI-14649334844<0.05
  • *

    * All comparisons are between non-Hispanic white and the other ethnic groups. UACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio.