Table 1—

Characteristics of adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the three time periods

T1T2T3P
n257284337
Sex123 M, 134 F137 M, 147 F153 M, 184 F0.74
Not treated with CSII009
Year at diagnosis
    1977–19804600
    1981–1985126493
    1986–19908516477
    1991–1997071257
Retinopathy120/244 (49)84/268 (31)77/324 (24)<0.0001
Clinical retinopathy29/244 (12)11/246 (4)6/308 (2)<0.0001
AER ≥7.5 μg/min61/162 (38)75/247 (30)75/296 (25)0.022
Microalbuminuria11/162 (7)7/247 (3)8/296 (3)0.058
≥1 autonomic nerve abnormality46/254 (18)52/246 (21)31/174 (18)0.60
≥1 peripheral nerve abnormality32/257 (12)47/249 (19)80/332 (24)0.0017
Age (years)14.6 (14.1–16.6)14.5 (14.0–15.7)14.6 (14.0–16.1)0.14
Duration (years)7.9 (6.2–10.3)7.2 (6.1–10.0)7.5 (6.2–10.2)0.48
A1C (%)8.6 (7.8–9.6)8.7 (7.9–9.8)8.7 (8.0–9.6)0.30
Median A1C (%)*8.5 (7.8–9.2)8.5 (8.0–9.2)8.4 (7.9–9.0)0.36
Number of A1C5 (2–9)14 (7–21)17 (11–23)<0.0001
Mean AER (μg)6.2 (4.0–10.1)5.4 (3.8–8.5)4.5 (3.3–7.7)0.0003
Height SDS−0.09 ± 1.020.05 ± 0.980.27 ± 0.97<0.0001
Weight (kg)58.6 (51.0–65.9)59.5 (52.4–67.8)63.3 (54.2–72.2)<0.0001
Weight SDS0.37 (−0.20 to 0.97)0.63 (0.10–1.11)0.85 (0.28–1.44)<0.0001
BMI SDS0.46 (−0.03 to 0.93)0.67 (0.19–1.13)0.79 (0.22–1.33)<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure centile58 (44–82)73 (55–85)74 (51–86)<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure centile79 (57–90)79 (64–89)79 (60–84)0.37
Cholesterol (mmol/l)4.5 (3.8–5.0)4.3 (3.8–5.0)4.5 (3.9–5.2)0.20
Insulin dose/weight1.08 (0.96–1.28)1.17 (1.01–1.40)1.22 (1.03–1.43)<0.0001
Socioeconomic risk score0.31 (−0.17 to 0.80)0.23 (−0.17 to 0.80)0.36 (−0.07 to 0.94)0.17
Urban area158/216 (73)180/266 (68)229/329 (70)0.42
Numbers of injections/day
    1–2227/257 (88)149/276 (54)110/333 (33)<0.0001
    3–530/257 (12)127/276 (46)223/333 (67)
Moderately severe hypoglycemia in last 12 months24/241 (10)24/253 (9)21/325 (6)0.26
Severe hypoglycemia in last 12 months18/240 (8)17/251 (7)28/325 (9)0.71
  • Data are n (%), median (interquartile range), or means ± SD.

  • *

    * Median of all available A1C measurements. CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.