Table 1—

Subject characteristics and prevalence of diabetes complications and associated risk factors, Sandy Lake Diabetes Complications Study, 2001

Definitionn
Age (average years ± SD)46.5 ± 13.3
Sex (% female)65.0
Duration of diabetes [median years (interquartile range)]9.0 (3–11)
Complications
    Microalbuminuria*Albumin-to-creatinine ratio 2.0–20 mg/mmol (men), 2.8–28 mg/mmol (women)16644.0% (36.4–51.9)
    Macroalbuminuria*Albumin-to-creatinine ratio >20 mg/mmol (men), >28 mg/mmol (women)16616.9% (11.7–23.6)
    Neuropathy>2 points on MNSI14746.3% (38.1–55.6)
    RetinopathyMild NPDR8.3% (4.6–15.2)
Moderate/severe NPDR13.5% (8.8–21.6)
PDR1331.5% (0.3–6.1)
    Macular edema§Non-CSME or CSME1323.1% (1.0–8.2)
    Increased carotid IMTIMT >1 mm1409.3% (5.2–15.7)
    Peripheral arterial diseaseAnkle-brachial index <0.9514114.9% (9.7–22.1)
    AnginaPositive on Rose questionnaire18310.9% (6.9–16.5)
    ClaudicationPositive on Rose questionnaire1836.0% (3.2–10.8)
Risk factors
    Poor glycemic controlA1C >7%17163.2% (55.4–70.3)
    Hypertension (%)#SBP/DBP >130/80 mmHg18061.7% (54.1–68.7)
    Elevated LDLLDL ≥2.5 mmol/l14461.1% (52.6–69.0)
    Elevated total-to-HDL cholesterol ratioTotal-to-HDL cholesterol ratio ≥414745.6% (37.4–54.0)
    Elevated triglycerideTriglyceride ≥1.5 mmol/l14761.2% (52.8–69.0)
    Elevated C-reactive protein**C-reactive protein ≥3 mg/l14751.7% (43.3–60.0)
    Duration of diabetes>10 years18947.1% (39.9–54.5)
    SmokingCurrently smoking cigarettes18351.4% (43.9–58.8)
  • Data are prevalence (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Micro- and macroalbuminuria cut points taken from Canadian Diabetes Association clinical practice guidelines (11); to convert cut points presented in mg/mmol to mg/g, multiply by 8.83.

  • Diabetic sensory neuropathy assessed using MNSI (range 0–9; subjects with scores >2 considered to have neuropathy) (10).

  • Retinopathy definitions based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study adaptation of the modified Airlie House classification (8).

  • §

    § Macular edema graded as described in detail previously (9).

  • Peripheral artery disease was defined as an ankle-brachial index of <0.95; subjects with ankle-brachial index >1.40 were considered to have noncompressible vessels.

  • Risk factor cut points taken from Canadian Diabetes Association clinical practice guidelines (11).

  • #

    # Hypertension: systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg or on hypertension treatment.

  • **

    ** C-reactive protein risk cutoff proposed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Heart Association (29). CSME, clinically significant macular edema.